Glossary

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Jackson, A.Y. (Canadian, 1882–1974)
A founding member of the Group of Seven and an important voice in the formation of a distinctively Canadian artistic tradition. A Montreal native, Jackson studied painting in Paris before moving to Toronto in 1913; his northern landscapes are characterized by the bold brush strokes and vivid colours of his Impressionist and Post-Impressionist influences.
Jacobs, Flo (American, b. c. 1933)
An actor and the long-time artistic collaborator of her husband of fifty years, the filmmaker Ken Jacobs. She appears in many of his films, as well as in movies by their son, Azazel Jacobs, and those of Jonas Mekas.
Jacobs, Ken (American, b. 1933)
A filmmaker and professor of cinema, and a key figure in New York experimental cinema of the 1960s. Jacobs studied painting with Hans Hofmann before taking up film in 1955. In 1966 he founded New York’s Millennium Film Workshop, a co-operative that supported and encouraged underground filmmakers.
Janvier, Alex (Dene Suline/Canadian, b. 1935)
Influenced by Expressionism and strongly by his First Nations heritage, Janvier was a founding member of the Professional Native Indian Artists Inc. and is a pioneering figure in Indigenous art in Canada. Often composed with bright, symbolic colours and curvilinear lines, his non-representational paintings address themes of land, spirit, and the struggles and triumphs of Indigenous culture.
Jauran (Rodolphe de Repentigny) (Canadian, 1928–1959)
A painter, photographer, and art critic, Jauran was a founding member of the Plasticiens. He wrote the group’s 1955 manifesto and promoted a rigorous geometric abstraction over the Automatistes’ subjective expressionism.
Jérôme, Jean-Paul (Canadian, 1928–2004)
A founding member of the Plasticiens and, in the 1950s, the most idiosyncratic artist of the group. He left Montreal for Paris in 1957 and worked more lyrically, until, toward the end of his career, he returned to a complex, highly colourful use of geometry.
Jesuits
The Society of Jesus, whose members are known as Jesuits, is a Roman-Catholic order that was founded five hundred years ago by Ignatius Loyola. They played a major role in the Counter-Reformation of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries and as missionaries throughout the world.
Johns, Jasper (American, b. 1930)
One of the most significant figures in twentieth-century American art, Johns—a painter, printmaker, and sculptor—is credited, with Robert Rauschenberg, with renewing interest in figurative painting following Abstract Expressionism’s dominance of the New York scene. Among his best-known works are those incorporating the motif of the American flag.
Johnson, Ray (American, 1927–1995)
A collage and performance artist, early practitioner of mail art, and leading light among New York Pop and Conceptual artists. Studied at Black Mountain College under Josef Albers and Lyonel Feininger, formerly of the Bauhaus, as well as Robert Motherwell. Johnson was a feverishly creative artist, for whom the boundary between art and life was all but non-existent.
Johnston, Frank (Canadian, 1888–1949)
A founding member of the Group of Seven. In 1921, he became principal of the Winnipeg School of Art and later taught at the Ontario College of Art (now OCAD University). He formally severed his ties with the group in 1924, preferring to paint in a realistic style less controversial at the time than his earlier decorative work.
Jones, Lowell (American, 1935–2004)
Trained at the Cranbrook Academy of Art in Michigan, Jones taught drawing, lithography, and sculpture at the University of Kentucky. He took a leave of absence to teach lithography to Inuit artists in Cape Dorset. In 1978 he moved to Chico, California, and devoted himself to his art, focusing on kinetic sculpture.