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General Idea Life & Work by Sarah E.K. Smith
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Photo Credits

Every effort has been made to secure permissions for all copyrighted material. The Art Canada Institute will gladly correct any errors or omissions.



Credit for Cover Image

General Idea, One Year of AZT, 1991, with One Day of AZT, 1991. (See below for details.)


Credit for Banner Images

Biography: General Idea, XXX (bleu), 1984. (See below for details.)
Key Works: General Idea, Nazi Milk, 1979. (See below for details.)
Significance & Critical Issues: General Idea, AIDS, 1988. Installation view outside of S-Bahnhof Westend, Berlin, part of Vollbild AIDS: Eine Kunstausstellung über Leben und Sterben (AIDS Full Blown: An Exhibition about Living and Dying), Neue Gesellschaft für bildende Kunst, Berlin, 1988–89. © General Idea. Photo credit: General Idea.
Style & Technique: Magi© Bullet, 1992. (See below for details.)
Sources & Resources: No Mean Feet, 1973–74. Courtesy of AA Bronson and Esther Schipper, Berlin. © General Idea. Photo credit: Nick Ash.
Where to See: The Armoury of the 1984 Miss General Idea Pavillion, 1985–90. Installation view from the Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto. Art Gallery of Ontario, gift from the Volunteer Committee Fund, 1990 (90/91). © General Idea.


Credits for Works by General Idea

1-001 General Idea, 1975. From Showcard Series, 1975–79. Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto, gift of Vivian and David Campbell, 1994 (94/535.250). Courtesy of General Idea. © General Idea. Photo credit: General Idea.
1-046 The Colour Bar, 1975. From Showcard Series, 1975–79. Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto, gift of Vivian and David Campbell, 1994 (94/535.44). © General Idea. Photo credit: General Idea.
1-109 Three Blind Artists, 1979. From Showcard Series, 1975–79. Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto, gift of Vivian and David Campbell, 1994 (94/535.102). © General Idea.
2-015 Slow Zoom Into Ziggurat Tower, 1975. From Showcard Series, 1975–79. Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto, gift of Vivian and David Campbell, 1994 (94/535.121). © General Idea. Photo credit: General Idea.
78 Gerrard Street West, c. 1969. Photograph by Jorge Zontal. Courtesy of General Idea.
AA Bronson stencilling the words “Air, Earth, Fire, Water” on the sidewalk, 1969. Photograph by Jorge Zontal. Collection General Idea, General Idea fonds, National Gallery of Canada Library and Archives, Ottawa. © General Idea.
AIDS, 1987. Private Collection. Courtesy of Esther Schipper. © General Idea. Photo credit: Zindman/Fremont.
AIDS, 1988–90. Installation view from General Idea’s Fin de siècle, Württembergischer Kunstverein, Stuttgart, Germany, 1992. Courtesy of General Idea and Württembergischer Kunstverein. Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto, gift of Robert and Lynn Simpson, 1997 (98/48.1-.3). © General Idea.
AIDS, 1989. Installation view shows the sculpture at General Idea’s Fin de siècle, Württembergischer Kunstverein, Stuttgart, 1992. National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, purchased 2001 (no. 45923). Courtesy of General Idea. © General Idea. Photo credit: Pierre Antoine.
AIDS Ring, 1993/96. Courtesy of General Idea. © General Idea. Photo credit: Peter MacCallum.
Air, Earth, Fire, Water, newspaper advertisement, June 8, 1970. Collection General Idea, General Idea fonds, National Gallery of Canada Library and Archives, Ottawa. © General Idea.
Air, Earth, Fire, Water, newspaper advertisement, June 11, 1970. Collection General Idea, General Idea fonds, National Gallery of Canada Library and Archives, Ottawa. © General Idea.
Artist’s Conception: Miss General Idea 1971, 1971. Courtesy of General Idea and Esther Schipper, Berlin. © General Idea. Photo credit: Andrea Rossetti.
Baby Makes 3, 1984/89. Courtesy of Deichtorhallen Hamburg/Sammlung Falckenberg and Esther Schipper, Berlin. © General Idea. Photo credit: General Idea.
Boutique Coeurs volant, 1994/2001. Installation view from Boutique Coeurs volants, Florence Loewy, Paris, October 20, 2000–March 20, 2001. Courtesy of General Idea and Florence Loewy. © General Idea.
Colour Bar Lounge, 1979. Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto (81/72). Purchased 1981. © General Idea.
Contestants participating in The 1970 Miss General Idea Pageant, a component of What Happened, St. Lawrence Centre for the Arts, Toronto, 1970. Photograph by General Idea. Collection General Idea, General Idea fonds, National Gallery of Canada Library and Archives, Ottawa. © General Idea.
Cornucopia, 1982. Courtesy of Electronic Arts Intermix. © General Idea.
Cornucopia: Fragments from the Room of the Unknown Function in the Villa Dei Misteri of The 1984 Miss General Idea Pavilion, 1982–83. San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, Accessions Committee Fund purchase. Courtesy of General Idea. © General Idea. Photo credit: General Idea.
Dear General Idea, if I live to be a hundred I'll never forgive myself for… (recto and verso), 1972. Courtesy of General Idea. © General Idea. Photo credit: The Gas Company.
Detail of the “Glamour” manifesto, FILE Megazine, “Glamour Issue,” vol. 3, no. 1 (autumn 1975), 22–23. © General Idea. Photo credit: General Idea.
Double-page spread of “Artists’ Directory,” FILE Megazine, “Mr. Peanut Issue,” vol. 1, no. 1 (April 15, 1972), 28–29. National Gallery of Canada Library and Archives, Ottawa. © General Idea.
Eye of the Beholder, 1989. Courtesy of General Idea. © General Idea. Photo credit: Thomas E. Moore.
Felix Partz and Miss Honey on the set of The 1970 Miss General Idea Pageant, 1970. Photograph by General Idea. Collection General Idea, General Idea fonds, National Gallery of Canada Library and Archives, Ottawa. © General Idea.
Felix Partz modelling V.B. Gown #3 (Massing Studies for the Pavillion #3), 1975. Photograph by General Idea. Collection General Idea, General Idea fonds, Library and Archives, National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa. © General Idea.
Felix Partz wearing a monkey-fur coat, Toronto, c. 1970. Photograph by Jorge Zontal. Courtesy of General Idea.
FILE Megazine, “Final Issue, The City,” no. 29 (1989). Courtesy of General Idea. © General Idea. Photo credit: Peter MacCallum.
FILE Megazine, “Glamour Issue,” vol. 3, no. 1 (autumn 1975). Various collections. Courtesy of General Idea. © General Idea. Photo credit: Peter MacCallum.
FILE Megazine, “IFEL Special Paris Issue,” vol. 2, no. 3 (September 1973). Courtesy of General Idea. © General Idea. Photo credit: Peter MacCallum.
FILE Megazine, “Mr. Peanut Issue,” vol. 1, no. 1 (April 15, 1972). Courtesy of General Idea. © General Idea. Photo credit: Peter MacCallum.
Fin de siècle, 1994. Courtesy of General Idea and Esther Schipper, Berlin. © General Idea.
Fin de siècle (detail), 1990. Installation view from General Idea’s Fin de siècle, Württembergischer Kunstverein, Stuttgart, Germany, 1992. Photograph courtesy of General Idea and Württembergischer Kunstverein. Private Collection, Turin. © General Idea.
General Idea and friends on the roof of 87 Yonge Street, Toronto, c. 1971–73. Photograph by Elke Town. Collection General Idea.
General Idea’s Nazi Milk Glass from the Colour Bar Lounge, 1980. Courtesy of General Idea. © General Idea. Photo credit: Thomas E. Moore.
General Idea’s Putti, 1993. Courtesy of General Idea. © General Idea. Photo credit: Peter MacCallum.
General Idea Studio/Art Metropole, 241 Yonge Street, Toronto, 1974. Photograph by General Idea. Collection General Idea, General Idea fonds, National Gallery of Canada Library and Archives, Ottawa.
General Idea’s Test Tube, 1980. Various Collections. Courtesy of General Idea. © General Idea. Photo credit: Peter MacCallum.
Granada Gazelle, Miss General Idea 1969 Displays the Entry Kit (detail from The 1971 Miss General Idea Pageant Documentation), 1971. Carmen Lamanna Estate. Courtesy of General Idea. © General Idea. Photo credit: General Idea. 
Imagevirus (Amsterdam), 1991. © General Idea. Photo credit: General Idea. 
Infe©ted Mondrian #9, 1994. Collection of McCarthy Tétrault LLP. © General Idea.
Inside/Outside General Idea Headquarters, Toronto (detail from the installation Light On), 1971. Collection General Idea. © General Idea.
Installation view of One Year of AZT, 1991, and Pharma©opia, 1992. View from General Idea’s Fin de siècle, Kunstverein, Hamburg, Germany, 1992–93. Photograph from Collection General Idea, General Idea fonds, National Gallery of Canada Library and Archives, Ottawa. © General Idea. Photo credit: General Idea.
Jorge Zontal at his sales stand in The Belly Store installation, 1969. Courtesy of General Idea. © General Idea.
Jorge Zontal and Felix Partz during the filming of Light On Documentation, 1971–74. Photograph by AA Bronson. Courtesy of General Idea. © General Idea.
Khroma Key Klub: The Blue Ruins from the 1984 Miss General Idea Pavillion, 1985. Installation view, De Vleeshal, Middleburg, the Netherlands, 1985. Courtesy of General Idea. © General Idea. Photo credit: Wim Riemens.
Liquid Assets, 1980. Detail from cover of File Megazine, “Special $ucce$$ Issue,” vol. 5, no. 1 (March 1981). National Gallery of Canada Library and Archives, Ottawa. © General Idea. Photo credit: Peter MacCallum.
Magi© Bullet, 1992. Installation view from Stux Gallery, New York, 1992. Museum of Modern Art, New York. Courtesy of Esther Schipper, Berlin, and Stux Gallery. © General Idea. Photo credit: General Idea.
Magic Palette, 1980, from a detail of The Getting into the Spirits Cocktail Book from the 1984 Miss General Idea Pavilion, 1980. © General Idea. Photo credit: General Idea.
Manipulating the Self (Manipulating the Scene), 1973. Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto (no. 74/18), purchased 1974. © General Idea.
Manipulating the Self (Phase 1 – A Borderline Case), 1970. Photograph Courtesy of Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto, and Esther Schipper, Berlin. © General Idea.
Marina Abramovic during the filming of Test Tube, 1979. Photograph by General Idea. Courtesy of General Idea. © General Idea.
Melting Snow Crystal Virus #4, 1992. Art Museum at the University of Toronto, gift of Sandra Simpson, 2011.11. © General Idea.
Mimi, 1968–69. Collection of the Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto, purchased 1987 (87/21). © General Idea.
Mimi Paige and Felix Partz at 78 Gerrard Street West, Toronto, c. 1969. Photograph by Jorge Zontal. Courtesy of General Idea.
Mondo Cane Kama Sutra, 1984. Installation view from Haute Culture: General Idea. Une retrospective, 1969–1994, Musee d’art moderne de la Ville de Paris, 2011. Collection General Idea. © General Idea. Photo credit: Pierre Antoine.
Mondo Cane Kama Sutra (detail), 1984. Collection General Idea. © General Idea. Photo credit: General Idea.
Mondo Cane Kama Sutra (detail), 1984. Collection General Idea. © General Idea. Photo credit: General Idea.
Nazi Milk, 1979. Courtesy of Deichtorhallen Hamburg/Sammlung Falckenberg and Esther Schipper, Berlin. © General Idea.
Nightschool, 1989. Courtesy of Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam and General Idea. © General Idea. Photo Credit: General Idea.
One Year of AZT, 1991, with One Day of AZT, 1991. Installation view from General Idea’s Fin de siècle, The Power Plant, Toronto, 1992. Collection of the National Gallery of Canada, One Day of AZT gift of Patsy and Jamie Anderson, Toronto, 2001 (no. 41032.1-5); One Year of AZT purchased 1995 (no. 37688.1-1825). Courtesy of General Idea. © General Idea. Photo credit: Cheryl O’Brien.
P is for Poodle, 1983/89. Courtesy of Deichtorhallen Hamburg/Sammlung Falckenberg and Esther Schipper, Berlin. © General Idea.
Performance documentation of Match My Strike, directed by Jorge Zontal, produced by John Neon, Poor Alex Theatre, Toronto, August 30, 1969. Photographer unknown. Collection General Idea. Photograph of original documentation courtesy of Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto. 
Performance documentation of The 1970 Miss General Idea Pageant, a component of the project What Happened, St. Lawrence Centre for the Arts, Toronto, 1970. Collection General Idea. Photograph by General Idea. © General Idea.
photographs (detail), 1969, by Jorge Zontal. Courtesy of General Idea. © General Idea.
Pilot, 1977. Courtesy of Electronic Arts Intermix. © General Idea.
Playing Doctor, 1992. Courtesy of General Idea and Esther Schipper, Berlin. © General Idea.
Publicity shot of various issues of FILE Megazine. Includes a double-page spread from the “Glamour” manifesto in FILE Megazine, “Glamour Issue,” vol. 3, no. 1 (autumn 1975), 20–21. Courtesy of General Idea. © General Idea. Photo credit: General Idea.
Self-Portrait with Objects, 1981/82. National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, Canadian Museum of Contemporary Photography, purchased 1985 (no. EX-85-142). © General Idea.
Showcard Series, 1975–79. Installation view from The Art Gallery of York University Presents: The 1984 Miss General Idea Pavilion, Fall 2009, curated by Philip Monk, Art Gallery of York University, Toronto. Various collections. Courtesy of the Art Gallery of York University. © General Idea. Photo credit: Michael Maranda.
Shut the Fuck Up, 1985. Courtesy of Electronic Arts Intermix. © General Idea.
Test Pattern: T.V. Dinner Plate, 1988. Courtesy of General Idea. © General Idea. Photo credit: Thomas E. Moore.
Test Tube, 1979. Courtesy of Electronic Arts Intermix. © General Idea.
The 1971 Miss General Idea Pageant, 1971. Various collections. Courtesy of General Idea. © General Idea. Photo credit: Peter MacCallum.
The Miss General Idea Pageant Entry Kit, 1971. © General Idea. Photo credit: General Idea.
The Ruins of the 1984 Miss General Idea Pavillion, 1977. Performance documentation by General Idea. © General Idea.
The Three Graces (Mural Fragment from the Villa Dei Misteri of the 1984 Miss General Idea Pavillion), 1982. Vancouver Art Gallery, Acquisition Fund (VAG 87.33 a-b). © General Idea.
The Unveiling of the Cornucopia (A Mural Fragment from the Room of the Unknown Function in the Villa Dei Misteri of the 1984 Miss General Idea Pavillion), 1982. University of Lethbridge Art Collection, purchased 1986 with funds provided by the Canada Council Special Purchase Assistance Program (1986 113). © General Idea. Photo credit: Jane Edmundson, University of Lethbridge Art Gallery.
The words “Air, Earth, Fire, Water” stencilled onto the sidewalk by AA Bronson, 1969. Photograph by Jorge Zontal. Collection General Idea, General Idea fonds, National Gallery of Canada Library and Archives, Ottawa. © General Idea.
Unknown installation view of The Boutique from the 1984 Miss General Idea Pavilion, 1980. Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto, gift of Sandra Simpson, 1998 (98/355). Courtesy of General Idea. © General Idea. Photo credit: General Idea.
Unknown installation view of The Boutique from the 1984 Miss General Idea Pavilion, 1980. Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto, gift of Sandra Simpson, 1998 (98/355). Courtesy of General Idea. © General Idea. Photo credit: General Idea.
V.B. Gowns featured in a performance view of Going thru the Motions, Walker Court, Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto, September 18, 1975. Collection General Idea. © General Idea. Photographer unknown.
Video still from Double Mirror Video (A Borderline Case), 1971. Courtesy of Electronic Arts Intermix. © General Idea.

Video still from Shut the Fuck Up, 1985. Courtesy of Electronic Arts Intermix. © General Idea.
Video still from Test Tube, 1979. Courtesy of Electronic Arts Intermix. © General Idea.
XXX (bleu), 1984. Installation view from Haute Culture: General Idea—A Retrospective, 1969–1994, Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto, 2011–12. Photograph courtesy of Art Gallery of Ontario and General Idea. Art Gallery of Ontario, gift of Sandra Simpson, 1993 (94/5). © General Idea.
XXX Voto (for the Spirit of Miss General Idea), 1995. Courtesy of General Idea and National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa. © General Idea. Photo credit: Cathy Busby.
¥en Boutique, 1989. Installation view from General Idea, Galleria Massimo De Carlo Arte Contemporanea, Milan, 1990. Fonds national d’art contemporain, for the collection of Musée national d’Art moderne—Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris. © General Idea. Photo credit: General Idea.

Credits for Photographs and Works by Other Artists

Car Crash, 1960, by Jim Dine. Performed at the Reuben Gallery, New York, November 16, 1960. Photograph by Robert R. McElroy. Courtesy of Getty Research Institute, Los Angeles (2014.M.7). © J. Paul Getty Trust. 
Felix, June 5, 1994, 1994, by AA Bronson. National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa (no. 40633). © AA Bronson.
General Idea in front of an installation of Test Pattern: T.V. Dinner Plates from the Miss General Idea Pavillion (detail), 1988. Installation view, SPIRAL (Wacoal Art Centre), Tokyo, 1988. Photograph by Tohru Kogure. Courtesy of Bijutsu Techo, Bijutsu Shuppan Sha. Collection General Idea, General Idea fonds, National Gallery of Canada Library and Archives, Ottawa. 
General Idea relaxing in Reconstructing Futures, 1977. Photograph by Jeremiah S. Chechik. National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, purchased 1983 (no.28286.1-31). Courtesy of General Idea. 
Glamour is Theft: A User’s Guide to General Idea by Philip Monk. (Toronto: Art Gallery of York University, 2012). Courtesy of the Art Gallery of York University.
Jorge Zontal, c. 1972. Photographer unknown. Collection General Idea, General Idea fonds, National Gallery of Canada Library and Archives, Ottawa.
Jorge Zontal, January 29, 1994. Photograph by Barr Gilmore. Courtesy of General Idea.
Life, vol. 61, no. 12 (September 16, 1966).
LOVE, 1966, by Robert Indiana. Indianapolis Museum of Art, Indianapolis, Indiana, James E. Roberts Fund (67.8).
LOVE, 1966–99, by Robert Indiana. Installed in New York, New York. Photograph by Hu Totya.
Marcel Dot, 1971, by Vincent Trasov. Collection General Idea. © Vincent Trasov.
Marshall McLuhan (1911–1980), 1974 (printed later), by Yousuf Karsh. National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, gift of Estrellita Karsh, 2009, in memory of her husband (no. 42604). © Yousuf Karsh Estate.
Performance by Artists, edited by AA Bronson and Peggy Gale, Toronto: Art Metropole, 1979. Courtesy of Art Metropole.
Silver Clouds, 1966 (re-fabricated in 1994), by Andy Warhol in collaboration with Billy Klüver. Installation view from Mostra SESC de Artes, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2002. Andy Warhol Museum, Pittsburg. © The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts, inc. / SODRAC (2016).
The Body Politic, November–December 1971. Courtesy of Canadian Lesbian and Gay Archives, Toronto.
The Body Politic: Special Police Raid Issue, February 1979. Courtesy of Canadian Lesbian and Gay Archives, Toronto.  
The Nobleman with his Hand on his Chest, c. 1580, by El Greco. Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid (P00809).
The Wreck of the Hope (The Arctic Sea), 1823–24, by Caspar David Friedrich. Hamburger Kunsthalle.
Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man by Marshall McLuhan, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1965. Cover design by Rudolph de Harak.
Video by Artists, edited by Peggy Gale, Toronto: Art Metropole, 1976.
Video still from Wavelength, 1966–67, by Michael Snow. National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, purchased 1970. © Michael Snow.


Acknowledgements

From the author

This project gave me the opportunity to connect with AA Bronson and Fern Bayer, who kindly provided pivotal insights into the development of General Idea, filling gaps in my archival research and contributing to my understanding of the group and its history. I am extremely grateful to both AA and Fern for their willingness to share.

          I would also like to express my sincere thanks to Philip Dombowsky, who facilitated my research into the General Idea fonds, the Art Metropole fonds and the Fern Bayer fonds at the National Gallery of Canada Library and Archives. I thank him for his time and patience during my extended research visit in 2014. While at the Library and Archives, I also benefited from the help of Cyndie Campbell, who gave me keen insights into the General Idea materials. As well, Peter Trepanier provided assistance, facilitating my access to original issues of FILE Megazine. Coinciding with my visit, Trepanier’s exhibition Then Again: A Celebration of Art Metropole’s 40th Anniversary was on display. This served as a perfect backdrop to the research I was conducting.

          It has been a pleasure to work with the fantastic team at the Art Canada Institute during the production of the online book—including Sara Angel, Anna Hudson, Kendra Ward, Cliodna Cussen, Dominique Denis, Eve Renaud, Meg Taylor, John Geoghegan, and Emily Lawrence. The text also benefitted immensely from the guidance of Shannon Anderson and Sholem Krishtalka during the editing process.
          Finally, I would like to thank Dr. Lynda Jessup at Queen’s University who initially brought the work of the ACI to my attention and encouraged me to connect with the initiative.


From the ACI
This online art book was made possible thanks to its Title Sponsor: the Hal Jackman Foundation. Much gratitude goes to the Lead Sponsor for the Canadian Online Art Book Project, Title Sponsor for this publication: BMO Financial Group.

The Art Canada Institute gratefully acknowledges the other sponsors for the 2015–16 Season: Aimia, Consignor Canadian Fine Art, Gluskin Sheff + Associates Inc., K. James Harrison, and Sandra L. Simpson, and TD Bank.

Thanks also to the Art Canada Institute Founding Patrons: Sara and Michael Angel, Jalynn H. Bennett, the Butterfield Family Foundation, David and Vivian Campbell, Albert E. Cummings, Kiki and Ian Delaney, the Fleck Family, Roger and Kevin Garland, the Gershon Iskowitz Foundation, The Scott Griffin Foundation, Michelle Koerner and Kevin Doyle, Phil Lind, Sarah and Tom Milroy, Nancy McCain and Bill Morneau, Gerald Sheff and Shanitha Kachan, Sandra L. Simpson, Pam and Mike Stein, and Robin and David Young; as well as its Founding Partner Patrons: The Pierre Elliott Trudeau Foundation and Partners in Art.

The ACI gratefully acknowledges the support and assistance of the Art Gallery of Ontario (Tracy Mallon-Jensen, Donald Rance, and Jim Shedden); Art Gallery of York University (Michael Maranda); Art Museum at the University of Toronto (Heather Pigat); Art Resource; Bijutsu Shuppan-Sha (Noriko Takahashi); Canadian Lesbian and Gay Archives (Colin Deinhardt); Carmen Lamanna Estate; Electronic Arts Intermix (Karl McCool and Anny Oberlink); Esther Schipper GMBH (Anna Mándoki and Isabelle Moffat); Florence Loewy (Camille Azaïs); Getty Research Institute (Sarah Sherman); McCarthy Tétrault LLP; National Gallery of Canada (Raven Amiro and Philip Dombowsky); Sammlung Falckenberg/Deichtorhallen Hamburg (Goesta Diercks); Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam (Hetty Wessels); The Gas Company; Tohru Kogure (Naomi Yamada); University of Lethbridge Art Gallery (Juliet Graham); Vancouver Art Gallery (Danielle Currie); De Vleeshal Zusterstraat (Julia Mullié); Württembergischer Kunstverein Stuttgart (Silke Albrecht); and Pierre Antoine, Nick Ash, Cathy Bushby, Jeremiah S. Chechik, Barr Gilmore, Peter MacCallum, Cheryl O’Brien, Michael Snow, and Vincent Trasov.

We also would like to acknowledge the image research assistance of Fern Bayer, AA Bronson, and Sholem Krishtalka.


Publisher: Sara Angel
Executive Editor: Kendra Ward
French Editorial Director: Dominique Denis
Image Research Manager: Cliodna Cussen 
Senior Web Manager: Simone Wharton
Editors: Shannon Anderson and Sholem Krishtalka
Copy Editor: Claire Crighton
Proofreader: Heather Sangster
Translator: Eve Renaud 
Digital Layout Managers: Sara Rodriguez and Simone Wharton
English Layout Associate: Heather Pierce 
French Layout Associate: Alicia Peres
Original Design Architecture: Concrete Design Communications


Copyright

© 2016 Art Canada Institute. All rights reserved.
ISBN 978-1-4871-0092-6

Art Canada Institute
Massey College, University of Toronto
4 Devonshire Place
Toronto, ON M5S 2E1


Library and Archives Canada Cataloguing in Publication


Smith, Sarah E.K., 1983-, author 

General Idea : life & work / Sarah E.K. Smith.

Includes bibliographical references. 
Contents: Biography — Key works — Significance & critical issues — Style &
technique — Sources & resources — Where to see.

Electronic monograph.

ISBN 978-1-4871-0093-3 (pdf).— ISBN 978-1-4871-0094-0 (mobile).

1. General Idea (Artists’ collective)—History  2. Art, Canadian—20th century  I. Art Canada Institute, issuing body II. General Idea (Artists' collective).  Works.  Selections.  III. Title.


NX513.Z9G4637 2016                     700.92                    C2016-900891-6