Greg Curnoe’s artistic influences ranged from comic books to twentieth-century modernists. In the works of Marcel Duchamp (1887–1968), Francis Picabia (1879–1953), and Kurt Schwitters (1887–1948), he discovered anarchism, text, collage, found materials, and assemblage. He drew inspiration from the artists Henri Matisse (1869–1954), Robert Delaunay (1885–1941), and Cornelis “Kees” Van Dongen (1877–1968). Curnoe’s use of highly keyed colour and text remained constants throughout his career as he made art out of the “stuff” of his daily experience.


Dada Remixed

Greg Curnoe’s earliest, most enduring artistic influence was probably comic books. As English professor Ross Woodman noted, “His childhood was shaped by comic magazines: Mickey Mouse, Goofy, the Shadow, Plastic Man, Captain Marvel were his favorites.”  His natural drawing facility led him to create his own cartoons and comic books, such as Dutch Dill Pickle, c. 1948.


Art Canada Institute, Kurt Schwitters, Mz 316 ische gelb (Mz 316 ische Yellow), 1921
Kurt Schwitters, Mz 316 ische gelb (Mz 316 ische Yellow), 1921, mixed media collage, 31.2 x 23.4 cm overall, Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven. 
Art Canada Institute, Greg Curnoe, Cherry Pop #7, November 18, 1964
Greg Curnoe, Cherry Pop #7, November 18, 1964, stamp pad ink, collage on paper, 30.5 x 29.8 cm, Estate of Greg Curnoe. Curnoe originally framed this work in a diamond-shaped white frame, with the edges parallel to the “point” of the collage. Shown here is the work as it is today, reframed in the conventional rectangle.


Curnoe adopted the cartoon style of bright primary and secondary colours with no modelling of the shapes, as well as the combining of words and images and juxtaposing of complementary colours to increase their intensity.


In 1954 in the Special Art Program at H.B. Beal Technical and Commercial High School, Curnoe first learned about Marcel Duchamp and the Dadaists and read László Moholy-Nagy’s book Vision in Motion (1947). He would have noted the famed Bauhaus professor’s linking of image and text, as well as his belief in the interconnectedness of art and life. Another important resource, which he first read in 1957, was the famous The Dada Painters and Poets: An Anthology (1951) by artist Robert Motherwell (1915–1991), with its images and texts by and about Duchamp, Kurt Schwitters, and Francis Picabia. He was attracted to the Dadaists’ use of found objects, assemblage, text, and collage, as well as to the anarchism, the humour, the element of chance, the anti-war sentiments, and the emphasis on Conceptual art.


As early as 1961, following in the Dadaist tradition, especially of Schwitters, Greg Curnoe began to collage or glue ephemera from his life—bus transfers, labels, detritus picked up on the street, old cheques, comic strips, newspaper clippings—onto variously shaped pieces of paper. He then added rubber-stamped or stencilled texts.


In fact, Dada was a pervasive influence throughout Curnoe’s career, from Drawer Full of Stuff, 1961, to his last full-sized bicycle portrait, Funny Bicycle, December 1985–May 20, 1986, an assemblage of a real bike frame with painted wooden wheels, a non-functioning bicycle.


Art Canada Institute, Greg Curnoe, Funny Bicycle, December 1985–May 20, 1986,
Greg Curnoe, Funny Bicycle, December 1985–May 20, 1986, mixed media sculpture, 94 x 168.9 x 35.6 cm, private collection. Several important themes from Curnoe’s career show up in this work, including bicycles, colour wheels, and assemblage.



Pop art had roots in Dada, so it is not surprising that Greg Curnoe’s work has been included in Pop art exhibitions, most likely because of his inclusion in art critic Lucy Lippard’s classic 1966 book Pop Art. She noted, “Greg Curnoe’s main connection with Pop Art is his flat rendering of figures and the frequent but unobtrusive ‘caption’ across the top.”


Curnoe was in fact working with many of the elements of Pop art—bright colours, text, comic strip–style figures, and familiar “things”—before Pop art was generally known. Art critic Gary Michael Dault noted his quite different approach: “Pop artists paint universal, generalized, and frequently banal objects. Curnoe, by contrast, paints the local, personal, and absorbing objects and events that make up his life . . . That isn’t Pop. It’s Curnoe making his own interests public.”


Art Canada Institute, Greg Curnoe, The Best Profile in the World, 1963
Greg Curnoe, The Best Profile in the World, 1963, oil and collage on plywood, 121.3 x 182.9 cm, National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa. Art historian Lucy Lippard selected this portrait of Curnoe’s friend William Exley, originally titled The Greatest Profile in the World, for her 1966 book, Pop Art. The title of the painting was later inexplicably changed, and consequently the humorous reference to actor John Barrymore—who was known as the Great Profile—was lost.



Words, Words, Words

Art Canada Institute, Greg Curnoe, List of Names from Wortley Road School, 1962
Greg Curnoe, List of Names from Wortley Road School, 1962, stamp pad ink and ball-point pen on paper, 33 x 18 cm, McIntosh Gallery, Western University, London. The two “P”s and the lower case “c” are hand drawn, rather than stamped, perhaps because these letters were missing from the stamp set.

Greg Curnoe’s interest in text goes back to his childhood, when he was given a rubber stamp set as well as small rubber letters that were set in a wooden three-line holder. He produced occasional newsletters with his cousin Gary Bryant, who had a drum printing press. Curnoe also experimented with date stamps discarded from his father’s office. He explained, “It was so natural for me to associate type and text with a picture. And I quickly learned there are things you can do with a text that you can’t do with a picture.”  As a result, there are few works in Curnoe’s oeuvre that do not include text of some kind. The discovery of the Dadaist use of text reinforced his childhood interest, but Curnoe used text in his own idiosyncratic way.


In 1961 Curnoe bought a new rubber stamp set, the first of many sets with uppercase letters that he used over the years. His early stamped works were lists: for example, lists of names of boys he grew up with. These were often very simple—black words stamped from individual letters combined with “found” texts. He also began the practice of making unique artists’ books, creating over a dozen from 1962 to 1989.


In 1968 Curnoe stamped the monumental six canvases of View of Victoria Hospital, First Series: #1–6. As art critic John Noel Chandler noted, the significance of this text series cannot be overstated: “Perhaps what is most novel and striking about what Curnoe has done is that by portraying the physical landscape with words, which are more abstract than pictures of things (at least in a phonetic language like our own), while at the same time making his language as simple and concrete as possible, Curnoe has accomplished the very interesting paradox of making pictures which simultaneously are abstract and concrete, making one reconsider the value of the dualism.”


Text in Curnoe’s work was stamped, stencilled, embossed, or handwritten, with the break in the lettering determined by the size of the support. Curnoe explained, “I discovered that a sans serif typeface isn’t as legible as the more traditional serif faces. In other words, the letters stick out, they don’t disappear. It makes you look and read at the same time.”


Art Canada Institute, Greg Curnoe, Installation view of Greg Curnoe, View of Victoria Hospital, First Series: #1–6, 1968–69
Installation view of Greg Curnoe, View of Victoria Hospital, First Series: #1–6, 1968–69, rubber stamp and ink over latex on canvas; six canvases, each 289.6 x 228.6 cm; National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, installation view unknown. Greg Curnoe stamped this non-figurative word description of his view of Victoria Hospital from one pane of his studio window. It was the first in a series of four works.
Art Canada Institute, Greg Curnoe, View of Victoria Hospital, First Series: #1–6, 1968
Greg Curnoe creating View of Victoria Hospital, First Series: #1–6, 1968,  photograph by Pierre Théberge. Pictured is #1 in progress, September 1, 1968. Curnoe had to climb up and down ladders carrying individual stamps loaded with black ink, which he pressed forcefully onto white primed canvas that had been stapled to rubber carpet padding tacked to a sheet of plywood.


Curnoe was himself an omnivorous reader, and he amassed a large library over the years. Poetry anthologies and exhibition catalogues vied for space with atlases, novels, art books, and catalogues of bike parts. A novel that had a lasting influence on his work was The Voyeur (1955) by French writer and filmmaker Alain Robbe-Grillet, whose emphasis on precise language with an absence of metaphor was the literary equivalent of the visual style Curnoe was developing in the early sixties. Curnoe noted: “It is still one of my favourite novels and served to confirm my interest in using simple language and simple direct description.”


Art Canada Institute, Greg Curnoe, Curnoe’s studio in 1988
Curnoe’s studio in 1988, photograph by Ian MacEachern.


The two views of Victoria Hospital are excellent examples of Robbe-Grillet’s influence, with their straightforward description—one in words and one in imagery with accompanying text—of the hospital directly across the river from his studio.



Razzle-Dazzle Colour

Art Canada Institute, Greg Curnoe, Self-Portrait, 1956
Greg Curnoe, Self-Portrait, 1956, oil on cardboard, 30.5 x 20.5 cm, private collection. Curnoe’s work before 1960 tended to be monochromatic. 
Art Canada Institute,Greg Curnoe, Girl, c. 1960
Greg Curnoe, Girl, c. 1960, Day-Glo paint and acrylic on paperboard, 112 x 71.1 cm, Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto. The AGO catalogues this work as Untitled (Full-Length Walking Woman) though Curnoe titles it Girl in his personal slides.

This virtuosity is astonishing considering that Curnoe was slightly red/green colour blind.  He would not have seen the world in grey, as is sometimes assumed, but he might have had difficulty distinguishing one colour placed on top of another. As a result, he may have used the technique of placing bright colours in adjacent but rarely overlapping areas as a conscious strategy to see them clearly. When one thinks of Greg Curnoe, it is colour—saturated, intense, and insistent—that often first comes to mind, no matter the medium. Curnoe became a master of the application of pigments, usually very bright, be it fluorescent or other industrial paint, oil, acrylic, watercolour, or pastel.


His paintings before 1960—for example, the 1956 Self-Portrait—tend to be monochromatic and duller than his subsequent work, such as Girl, c. 1960. Stamping black ink on collaged ephemera or on a monochrome background, as in The True North Strong and Free, #1–5, 1968, or Deeds #5, August 19–22, 1991, might have been another form of accommodation. His admiration for the work of Montreal painters Guido Molinari (1933–2004) and Claude Tousignant (b. 1932) could be partly due to their use of bright, non-overlapping colours.


Over the years, Curnoe became knowledgeable about pigments. He researched their origins, captivated by the romance of names such as Bremen blue and Vienna lake. He also understood colour theory, using complementary colours to great effect, particularly his favourite blue and orange combination. Artist Robert Fones (b. 1949) observed: “For Curnoe . . . pigments provided a ready-made alphabet with universal and local associations.”


Greg Curnoe’s mastery of the watercolour medium is undisputed. He most likely learned the technique at art school and continued to paint small watercolour landscapes throughout his career. He applied the bright transparent colour to dry paper, a good choice for on-the-spot sketches while travelling.


Art Canada Institute, Greg Curnoe, Sunset, Port Franks, 1988
Greg Curnoe, Sunset, Port Franks, 1988, watercolour and pencil on paper, 22.9 x 30.5 cm, collection of Ian Ross. 
Art Canada Institute, Greg Curnoe, Above Glen Huron, Looking North, August 10–13, 1987
Greg Curnoe, Above Glen Huron, Looking North, August 10–13, 1987, watercolour on paper, 30.8 x 41 cm, McIntosh Gallery, Western University, London.


Sometimes Curnoe’s use of colour was straightforward, but at other times he made unusual choices, such as in a series of twenty self-portraits created in the summer of 1992. In the image of a work in progress, Self-Portrait #17, we can see that Curnoe began by sketching the broad outlines of his head and face in pencil and dating the work. Next he brushed on the blue watercolour background and stamped the number 17 at the top right before filling the drawn areas with arbitrary colour, including his favourite orange, yellow, and blue.


Art Canada Institute, Greg Curnoe, Self-Portrait #17 in progress
Greg Curnoe, Self-Portrait #17 in progress, photograph by Greg Curnoe. Here Curnoe has begun by sketching the broad outlines of his head and face in pencil and dating the work. He has brushed on the watercolour background and stamped the top right-hand corner of the work.
Art Canada Institute, Greg Curnoe, Self-Portrait #17, August 8, 1992
Greg Curnoe, Self-Portrait #17, August 8, 1992; watercolour, pencil, ink, stamp pad ink; 26 x 18 cm; private collection. Here he is wearing the official London Centennial Wheelers cycling shirt he had designed. Note the dot of orange in the corner of his right eye to intensify the blue.


For large works, Curnoe had originally used paint on a wooden support, but in 1973 he switched to watercolour for the first of ten large-scale bicycle portraits. These were risky undertakings, as watercolour cannot be painted over in the event of a mistake and large paper is expensive. He produced several other large watercolours, including Homage to Van Dongen #1 (Sheila), June 27, 1978–November 23, 1979, but his largest watercolour is the magnificent Short Wave Radios on Long Board, 1987. This inspired commission by Blackburn Radio Inc., a London family-run business with radio stations all over “Souwesto,” drew on Curnoe’s long-standing interest in radio and is a superb example of Curnoe’s sensuous swirling colour.


Constantly innovating and experimenting, Greg Curnoe chose whatever style, medium, or technique would best express his ideas. His oeuvre, defined by his life experience and rendered with superb technical virtuosity, remains a testament to a life lived creatively, a life in which art was life and life was art.


Art Canada Institute, Greg Curnoe, Short Wave Radios on Long Board, 1987
Greg Curnoe, Short Wave Radios on Long Board, 1987, watercolour and pencil on paper framed in irregular Plexiglas and wood, 193 x 368.3 cm, Museum London. A trestle table supporting five shortwave radios from Curnoe’s own collection is juxtaposed against a swirling background of colour with call letters of radio stations.




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