Although Lionel LeMoine FitzGerald had participated in shows with the Group of Seven for two years prior to joining them in 1932, he exhibited officially with the group only once before they disbanded in 1933. A Memorial Exhibition organized by the National Gallery of Canada and the Winnipeg Art Gallery travelled across Canada in 1958. The first in-depth scholarly analysis of his work occurred with the exhibition Lionel LeMoine FitzGerald, 1890–1956: The Development of an Artist, curated by Patricia E. Bovey and Ann Davis with Cathy Stewart for the Winnipeg Art Gallery in 1978.
Selected Exhibitions During FitzGerald’s Lifetime
September 10–27, 1921, Catalogue of Paintings by L.L. FitzGerald, Winnipeg Art Gallery, Board of Trade Building. First solo exhibition (forty-one works).
May 9–October 1925, British Empire Exhibition Canadian Section of Fine Arts, British Empire, Fine Arts Galleries, Wembley Park, London, United Kingdom.
April 10–May 10, 1927, Exposition d’art Canadien, Musée du Jeu de Paume, Paris.
January 1928, Arts and Letters Club of Toronto. FitzGerald’s first solo exhibition in Eastern Canada.
Late December 1929–February 1930, J.M. Dent and Sons Ltd., Aldine House, 224 Bloor St. W., Toronto.
May 18–June 1, 1935, Exhibition of Drawings by Kathleen Munn, LeMoine FitzGerald, Bertram Brooker, Malloney Galleries, Toronto.
February 12–25, 1943, FitzGerald Drawings, Vancouver Art Gallery.
September 13–October 2, 1949, FitzGerald Watercolours and Drawings, Vancouver Art Gallery.
February 17, 1951, L.L. FitzGerald Paintings and Drawings, Winnipeg Art Gallery.
October 20–December, 1951, I Bienal do Museu de Arte Moderna de São Paulo, Museu de Arte Moderna, São Paulo, Brazil.
Selected Exhibitions After FitzGerald’s Death in 1956
March 30, 1957, Memorial Room for LeMoine FitzGerald 1890–1956, Winnipeg Art Gallery.
February 23–March 23, 1958, Lionel LeMoine FitzGerald, 1890–1956: A Memorial Exhibition, Winnipeg Art Gallery. Catalogue texts by Ferdinand Eckhardt, Lawren Harris, and LeMoine FitzGerald. Travelled to Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, Windsor Art Association, London Public Library, Art Gallery of Toronto, Regina College, and Vancouver Art Gallery.
April–May 1963, A New FitzGerald, Winnipeg Art Gallery, Civic Auditorium. Catalogue introduction by Ferdinand Eckhardt. This exhibition displayed all the known self-portraits for the first time.
January 31–April 13, 1975, L.L. FitzGerald and Bertram Brooker: Their Drawings, Winnipeg Art Gallery. Catalogue by Patricia E. Bovey.
March 7–29, 1977, L. LeMoine FitzGerald Exhibition, Gallery One One One, University of Manitoba School of Art, Winnipeg. Catalogue by Helen Coy.
March 24–May 28, 1978, Lionel LeMoine FitzGerald, 1890–1956: The Development of an Artist, Winnipeg Art Gallery. Curated by Patricia E. Bovey and Ann Davis with Cathy Stewart. Travelled to National Gallery of Canada, July 28–September 10, 1978; Norman MacKenzie Art Gallery, Regina, December 14, 1978–January 28, 1979; Musée d’art contemporain de Montréal, March 8–April 22, 1979; Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto, June 30–August 26, 1979; Glenbow-Alberta Institute, Calgary, October 5–December 1, 1979. Catalogue. This was the first large scholarly exhibition and catalogue to assess FitzGerald’s entire career.
March 17–April 15, 1982, FitzGerald as Printmaker: A Catalogue Raisonné of the First Complete Exhibition of the Printed Works, Gallery One One One, University of Manitoba School of Art, Winnipeg. Catalogue by Helen Coy.
September 10–October 31, 1982, Lionel LeMoine FitzGerald: His Drawings and Watercolours, Edmonton Art Gallery. Catalogue by Maggie Callahan.
October 2, 1988–January 2, 1989, In Seclusion with Nature: The Later Work of L. LeMoine FitzGerald 1942 to 1956, Winnipeg Art Gallery. Curated by Michael Parke-Taylor. Travelled to London Regional Art Gallery, March 17–April 30, 1989; Dalhousie Art Gallery, Halifax, May 25–July 9, 1989; McMichael Canadian Art Collection, Kleinburg, Ontario, July 30–October 1, 1989; Musée du Québec, December 6, 1989–January 28, 1990. Catalogue.
April 16–May 31, 1994, Living Harmony: FitzGerald’s British Columbia Landscapes, Vancouver Art Gallery. Catalogue by Ian M. Thom.
Beauty in a Common Thing: Drawings and Prints by L.L. FitzGerald, organized and circulated by the National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa. Curated by Christine Lalonde. Travelled to Owens Art Gallery, Sackville, New Brunswick, September 10–November 7, 2004; Winnipeg Art Gallery, December 18, 2004–March 13, 2005; Thunder Bay Art Gallery, Ontario, April 5–May 22, 2005. Catalogue.
October 11–November 9, 2007, FitzGerald in Context, Gallery One One One, University of Manitoba School of Art, Winnipeg. Curated by Marilyn Baker. See online exhibition: https://www.umanitoba.ca/schools/art/
March 7–May 17, 2009, FitzGerald in Context, Winnipeg Art Gallery. Catalogue by Marilyn Baker.
Selected Writings by the Artist
FitzGerald, L.L. “Plans for Work.” In Supplementary Statement, John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation, New York. Published in FitzGerald as Printmaker, A Catalogue Raisonné of the First Complete Exhibition of the Printed Works, by Helen Coy, 3–4. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press, 1982.
———. “REPORT on a little journey around the art world of Vancouver in September nineteen forty-four.” October 31, 1944 (typescript copy in Winnipeg Art Gallery files).
———. “The Art Forum.” Canadian Art 11, no. 1 (August 1953): 39.
———. Bertram Brooker O.S.A. (1855 [sic]—1955). 84th Annual Exhibition of the Ontario Society of Artists. Exhibition catalogue. Toronto: Art Gallery of Toronto, 1956.
———. “FitzGerald on Art.” Canadian Art 15, no. 2 (April 1958): 118–19.
———. “FitzGerald on Art.” Lionel LeMoine FitzGerald, 1890–1956: A Memorial Exhibition. Exhibition catalogue. Winnipeg Art Gallery, 1958.
Selected Writings on the Artist
During His Life
Ayre, Robert [under the pseudonym de “The Wanderer”]. “I First Saw.” Winnipeg Tribune, December 21, 1923.
———. “LeMoine FitzGerald’s Drawings Delicate Sensitive and Admirable.” Montreal Standard, December 31, 1938.
Robert Ayre Fonds. Queen’s University Archives. Kingston, Ontario. Lionel LeMoine FitzGerald, unpublished typescript.
Brooker, Bertram. “The Seven Arts.” Ottawa Citizen, September 7, 1929.
Harris, Lawren. “The Recent Work of Lemoine Fitzgerald [sic].” Holograph manuscript. Ottawa: National Gallery of Canada Archives. 7.1-F. Reprinted in Michael Parke-Taylor: In Seclusion with Nature: The Later Work of L. LeMoine FitzGerald, 1942 to 1956, Appendix A, 47–48. Winnipeg: Winnipeg Art Gallery, 1988.
———. “LeMoine FitzGerald, Western Artist: FitzGerald’s Recent Work.” Canadian Art 3, no. 1 (October–November 1945): 10–13.
McCarthy, Pearl. “Mr. FitzGerald: Rare Visitor But His Horizon Is National.” Globe and Mail, August 8, 1953.
After His Death
Ayre, Robert. “FitzGerald the Least Known of Our Major Painters.” Montreal Star, August 18, 1956.
———. “More Recollections of LeMoine FitzGerald.” Montreal Star, August 25, 1956.
———. “Lionel LeMoine FitzGerald 1890-1956.” Canadian Art 14, no. 1 (Autumn 1956): 14–16.
———. “Don’t Approach LeMoine FitzGerald on Your Knees.” Montreal Star, May 3, 1958.
———. “Painter of the Prairies.” Weekend Magazine 8, no. 12 (1958): 26–29.
Baker, Marilyn. FitzGerald in Context. Winnipeg: Winnipeg Art Gallery, 2009. Exhibition catalogue.
Berry, Virginia. “30 Deer Lodge Place” [160 Lyle St.], c. 1962. Photocopy of holograph manuscript. Winnipeg Art Gallery Library.
Bovey, Patricia E., and Ann Davis. Lionel LeMoine FitzGerald (1890–1956): The Development of an Artist. Winnipeg: Winnipeg Art Gallery, 1978. Exhibition catalogue.
Bovey, Patricia E. L.L. FitzGerald and Bertram Brooker: Their Drawings. Winnipeg: Winnipeg Art Gallery, 1975. Exhibition catalogue.
Brooke, Janet M. “Lionel LeMoine FitzGerald.” In The Art of Connoisseurship. Montreal: Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, 1979. Exhibition catalogue.
Callahan, Maggie. Lionel LeMoine FitzGerald: His Drawings and Watercolours. Edmonton: Edmonton Art Gallery, 1982. Exhibition catalogue.
Coy, Helen. L. LeMoine FitzGerald Exhibition. Winnipeg: Gallery One One One, University of Manitoba, 1977. Exhibition catalogue.
———. FitzGerald as Printmaker, A Catalogue Raisonné of the First Complete Exhibition of the Printed Works. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press, 1982. Exhibition catalogue.
Eckhardt, Ferdinand. “The Technique of L.L. FitzGerald.” Canadian Art 15, no. 2 (April 1958): 114–18, 149.
———. A New FitzGerald. Winnipeg: Winnipeg Art Gallery, 1963. Exhibition catalogue.
Forrest, Kevin. “The Prints of L.L. FitzGerald.” MA thesis. Ottawa: Carleton University, 1979.
Foss, Brian. “Review: In Seclusion with Nature: The Later Work of L. LeMoine FitzGerald, 1942 to 1956, by Michael Parke-Taylor.” Journal of Canadian Art History 12, no. 2 (1989): 203–07.
George, Nellie H. “L.M. [sic] FitzgGerald [sic], The Prairie Artist.” The Manitoba Teacher (March/April, 1958): 12–13.
Harris, Lawren. “Lemoine Fitzgerald [sic].” In Canadian Group of Painters 56/57, no pagination. Toronto: Canadian Group of Painters, 1956. Catalogue for an exhibition held at the Art Gallery of Toronto and the Vancouver Art Gallery.
Hill, Charles. Canadian Painting in the Thirties. Ottawa: National Gallery of Canada, 1975. Exhibition catalogue.
Lalonde, Christine. Beauty in a Common Thing: Drawings and Prints by L.L. FitzGerald. Ottawa: National Gallery of Canada, 2004. Exhibition catalogue.
Luff, Carole Frances. “Progress Passing through the Spirit: The Modernist Vision of Bertram Brooker and Lionel LeMoine FitzGerald as Redemptive Art.” MA thesis. Ottawa: Carleton University, 1991.
Parke-Taylor, Michael. In Seclusion with Nature: The Later Work of L. LeMoine FitzGerald, 1942 to 1956. Winnipeg: Winnipeg Art Gallery, 1988. Exhibition catalogue.
Sens, Karen Linda. “A Discussion of the Stylistic Development in the Dated Oil Paintings of Lionel LeMoine FitzGerald (1890–1956).” MA thesis. Vancouver: University of British Columbia, 1970.
Shaul, Sandra. “Lionel LeMoine FitzGerald: The Search for Structural Unity in Abstract Art.” In The Modern Image: Cubism and the Realist Tradition. Edmonton: Edmonton Art Gallery, 1981. Exhibition catalogue.
Thom, Ian. Living Harmony: FitzGerald’s British Columbia Landscapes. Vancouver: Vancouver Art Gallery, 1994. Exhibition catalogue.
Wylie, Elizabeth. “The Development of Spirituality in the Work of Lionel LeMoine FitzGerald 1890–1956.” MA thesis. Montreal: Concordia University, 1981.
———. “The Prairie Art of L.L. FitzGerald.” In The Group of Seven in Western Canada, edited by Catharine M. Mastin, 135–55. Toronto/Calgary: Key Porter Books/Glenbow Museum, 2002. Exhibition catalogue.
———. “A Picture as a Living Thing: Lionel LeMoine FitzGerald and Landscape.” In Embracing Canada: Landscapes from Krieghoff to the Group of Seven, edited by Ian Thom, 188–91. Vancouver: Vancouver Art Gallery, 2016. Exhibition catalogue.
Varley, Christopher. “Lionel LeMoine FitzGerald: Modernist in Isolation.” In OKanada, edited by Robert Stacey, 76–80. Ottawa: The Canada Council for the Arts, 1982. Exhibition catalogue.
Key Interviews with the Artist
While FitzGerald was quoted from time to time in newspaper articles, this is the only in-depth interview recorded: L.L. FitzGerald. “Painters of the Prairies.” Canadian Broadcasting Corporation Midwest Network. Radio interview. December 1, 1954 (transcript in University of Manitoba Archives & Special Collections—L.L. FitzGerald—Helen Coy Research Material—Notes/Correspondence 1938–89, Box 24, Folder 22). Reprinted in In Seclusion with Nature: The Later Work of L. LeMoine FitzGerald, 1942 to 1956, by Michael Parke-Taylor, Appendix B, 49–51. Winnipeg: Winnipeg Art Gallery, 1988.
Bertram Brooker Fonds, University of Manitoba Archives & Special Collections, Winnipeg. Includes digital collections and Bertram Brooker Fonds: http://umanitoba.ca/libraries/units/archives/digital/
FitzGerald in Context: Gallery One One One, School of Art, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg: https://www.umanitoba.ca/schools/art/content/galleryoneoneone/
Irene Heywood Hemsworth Fonds, Library and Archives: http://collectionscanada.gc.ca/pam_archives/index.phpfuseaction=
Lionel LeMoine Fitzgerald’s Fonds. Includes digital collections and FitzGerald Family Fonds (University of Manitoba Archives & Special Collections); and digital collections and Lionel LeMoine FitzGerald Fonds (Winnipeg Art Gallery Archives): http://umanitoba.ca/libraries/units/archives/digital/prairie_prestige/fitzgerald.html.
Lionel LeMoine FitzGerald Fonds: Inventory of Papers, University of Manitoba Archives & Special Collections, Winnipeg: http://www.umanitoba.ca/libraries/units/archives/collections/complete_holdings/ead/html/fitzgerald.shtml.
National Gallery of Canada. Cybermuse digital collection FitzGerald NGC holdings: http://cybermuse.gallery.ca/cybermuse/enthusiast/thirties/gallery_of_e.jsp?iartistid=1784.
Winnipeg Art Gallery Collection. Website digital collection, FitzGerald: http://wag.ca/art/art-search/type:and/artist:FitzGerald.
Winnipeg School of Art. Inventory of Records, University of Manitoba Archives & Special Collections, Winnipeg: http://www.umanitoba.ca/libraries/units/archives/collections/complete_holdings/ead/html/
Lionel LeMoine FitzGerald was an avid reader on a wide range of subjects, encompassing artists, art history, the art world in general, and topics beyond. He shared a passion for books with his artist friend Bertram Brooker (1888–1955), who recommended literature they might discuss together.
Blake, William. Songs of Innocence and Experience. A gift from Brooker, 1945.
Brooker, Bertram (ed.). Yearbook of the Arts in Canada, 1928–1929. Toronto: Macmillan Co. of Canada Ltd.,1929.
Carey, Joyce, The Horse’s Mouth. London: Michael Joseph, 1944.
Fairless, Michael [Margaret Barber]. The Roadmender. London: Duckworth & Co., 1906.
Frantz, Henri. “The Art of Richard Parkes Bonington.” The Studio 33 (November 1904): 98–111.
Hunt, Holman. Pre-Raphaelitism and the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. 2 vols. London: Macmillan & Co. Ltd., 1905.
Ruskin, John. The Elements of Drawing. London: J.M. Dent and Sons, 1907.
Thomas, Dylan. “Vision and Prayer.” Horizon (January 1945): 8–13.