Copyright & Credits

 

 

Acknowledgements

From the Author
Thanks to my colleagues at the Royal Ontario Museum: Kenneth Lister (Anthropology), Heidi Sobol and Janet Cowan (Conservation), and Mary Allodi (Canadiana), all of whom were sounding boards about Kane. Ken’s research on Kane can only be described as inspiring. Priyanka Vaid at the Glenbow Museum, Jacques Des Rochers at the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, Debra Antoncic at the RiverBrink Museum, and Charlie Hill at the National Gallery of Canada kindly responded to specific inquiries. Special thanks to David Passmore, always insightful. I could not have asked for a better editorial team than that of the ACI. 


From the Art Canada Institute
This online art book was made possible thanks to BMO Financial Group, the Lead Sponsor of the 2014–15 Season of the Canadian Online Art Book Project. Much gratitude goes to The McLean Foundation, the title sponsor for Paul Kane: Life & Work, as well as the other sponsors for the 2014–15 Season: Aimia; Gluskin Sheff + Associates Inc.; The Hal Jackman Foundation; Phyllis Lambert; TD Bank Group; the Toronto Friends of the Visual Arts; and the Harold Town Estate.

Thanks also to the Art Canada Institute Founding Patrons: Sara and Michael Angel, Jalynn H. Bennett, The Butterfield Family Foundation, David and Vivian Campbell, Albert E. Cummings, Kiki and Ian Delaney, The Fleck Family, Roger and Kevin Garland, Michelle Koerner and Kevin Doyle, Phil Lind, Sarah and Tom Milroy, Charles Pachter, Gerald Sheff and Shanitha Kachan, Sandra L. Simpson, and Robin and David Young; as well as its Founding Partner Patrons: The Pierre Elliott Trudeau Foundation and Partners in Art.

The ACI gratefully acknowledges the support and assistance of the Art Gallery of Ontario (Jim Shedden and Ebony Jansen), the Cobourg Public Library (Heather Viscount), Library and Archives Canada, Andrew Liptak, the National Gallery of Canada (Kristin Rothschild and Leah Resnick), RiverBrink Art Museum (Debra Antoncic), Royal Ontario Museum (Nicola Woods), and the Stark Museum of Art (Alicia Benitez-Booker).

 


 

Image Sources


Photo Credits Every effort has been made to secure permissions for all copyrighted material. The Art Canada Institute will gladly correct any errors or omissions.

 


 

Credit for Cover Image

 

Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, Cunnawa-bum, Metis (Plains Cree and British ancestry), c. 1849–56
Paul Kane, Cunnawa-bum, Metis (Plains Cree and British ancestry), c. 1849–56. (See below for details.)

 

Credits for Banner Images

 

Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, Photograph of Paul Kane, Photographer Unknown, c. 1850
Biography: Paul Kane c. 1850, photographer unknown. M.O. Hammond Collection, National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa.
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, The Buffalo Pound, c. 1846–49
Key Works: Paul Kane,The Buffalo Pound, c. 1846–49. (See below for details.)
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane,  Medicine Pipe Stem Dance, Blackfoot, c. 1849–52
Significance & Critical Issues: Paul Kane, Medicine Pipe Stem Dance, Blackfoot, c. 1849–52. (See below for details.)
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane,  Half Breeds Travelling, Plains Metis, c. 1849–56
Style & Technique: Paul Kane, Half Breeds Travelling, Plains Metis, c. 1849–56. (See below for details.)
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, Canada Envelope Company commemorative Paul Kane mailer, 1971
Sources & Resources: Canada Envelope Company commemorative Paul Kane mailer, 1971. Photo courtesy of Andrew Liptak.
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, View of Paul Kane paintings in the Daphne Cockwell Gallery of Canada: First Peoples, Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto.
Where to See: View of Paul Kane paintings in the Daphne Cockwell Gallery of Canada: First Peoples, Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto. (See below for details.)

 

Credits for Works by Paul Kane

 

Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, Assiniboine Hunting Buffalo, c. 1851–56
Assiniboine Hunting Buffalo, c. 1851–56. National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, transfer from the Parliament of Canada, 1955 (6920). Photo © NGC.
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, Buffalo Hunt Studies, 1846
Buffalo Hunt Studies, 1846. Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto (946.15.103.1).
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, The Buffalo Pound, c. 1846–49
The Buffalo Pound, c. 1846–49. Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto (103720).
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, The Cackabakah Falls, c. 1849–56
The Cackabakah Falls, c. 1849–56. Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, The Honourable George William Allan Collection, Daphne Cockwell Gallery of Canada: First Peoples, Gift of Sir Edmund Osler (912.1.17).
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, Compositional Studies of Four Figures with Fans, c. 1846–48
Compositional Studies of Four Figures with Fans, c. 1846–48. Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto (946.15.79.2).
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, The Constant Sky, Saulteaux, c. 1849–56
The Constant Sky, Saulteaux, c. 1849–56. Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, The Honourable George William Allan Collection, Gift of Sir Edmund Osler (912.1.30).
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, Culchillum Wearing a Medicine Cap, 1847
Culchillum Wearing a Medicine Cap, 1847. Stark Museum of Art, Orange, Texas (31.78.108).
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, Cunnawa-bum, Metis (Plains Cree and British ancestry), c. 1849–56
Cunnawa-bum, Metis (Plains Cree and British ancestry), c. 1849–56. Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, The Honourable George William Allan Collection, Gift of Sir Edmund Osler (912.1.41).
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, The Death of Omoxesisixany or Big Snake, 1860
The Death of Omoxesisixany or Big Snake, 1860. Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto (2010.17.1).
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, Detail of Scroll and Caryatids, c. 1841
Detail of Scroll and Caryatids, c. 1841. In Paul Kane and E.S. Rogers, Paul Kane Sketch Pad (Toronto: Charles J. Musson, 1969).
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, Eliza Clarke Cory Clench, c. 1834–36
Eliza Clarke Cory Clench, c. 1834–36. National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa (30487). Photo © NGC.
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, Encampment amongst the Islands of Lake Huron, 1859
Encampment amongst the Islands of Lake Huron, 1859 (woodcut illustration from Paul Kane, Wanderings of an Artist among the Indians of North America). Photo courtesy of Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto.
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, Encampment with Conical Shaped Lodges and Canoe, 1845
Encampment with Conical Shaped Lodges and Canoe, 1845. Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto (946.15.37).
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, Falls of Pelouse, 1847
Falls of Pelouse, 1847. Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto (946.15.187).
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, Flat Head Woman and Child, Caw-wacham, Cowlitz, c. 1849–52
Flat Head Woman and Child, Caw-wacham, Cowlitz, c. 1849–52. Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, The Honourable George William Allan Collection, Gift of Sir Edmund Osler (912.1.80).
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, Fort Edmonton, Hudson’s Bay Company; Plains Cree, Assiniboine, c. 1849–56
Fort Edmonton, Hudson’s Bay Company; Plains Cree, Assiniboine, c. 1849–56. Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, The Honourable George William Allan Collection, Daphne Cockwell Gallery of Canada: First Peoples, Gift of Sir Edmund Osler (912.1.27).
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, François Lucie, A Cree Half-Breed Guide, c. 1847–48
François Lucie, A Cree Half-Breed Guide, c. 1847–48. Stark Museum of Art, Orange, Texas (31.78.147).
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, Freeman Schermerhorn Clench, c. 1834–36
Freeman Schermerhorn Clench, c. 1834–36. National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa (30486). Photo © NGC.
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, Half Breeds Travelling, Plains Metis, c. 1849–56
Half Breeds Travelling, Plains Metis, c. 1849–56. Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, The Honourable George William Allan Collection, Gift of Sir Edmund Osler (912.1.24).
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, Head Chief of the Assiniboines, (Portrait of Mah-min), Assiniboine, c. 1849–56
Head Chief of the Assiniboines, (Portrait of Mah-min), Assiniboine, c. 1849–56. Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, The Honourable George William Allan Collection, Gift of Sir Edmund Osler (912.1.59).
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, Indian Encampment on Lake Huron, c. 1845
Indian Encampment on Lake Huron, c. 1845. Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto (3597).
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, Kee-akee-ka-saa-ka-wow, “The Man That Gives the War Whoop,” Plains Cree, Fort Pitt, 1846
Kee-akee-ka-saa-ka-wow, “The Man That Gives the War Whoop,” Plains Cree, Fort Pitt, 1846. Library and Archives Canada, Ottawa, accession no. 1981-55-44, acquired with the assistance of a grant from the Minister of Communications under the terms of the Cultural Property Export and Import Act.
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, Kee-akee-ka-saa-ka-wow, (“The Man That Gives the War Whoop, Head Chief of the Crees”), Plains Cree, c. 1849–56
Kee-akee-ka-saa-ka-wow, (“The Man That Gives the War Whoop, Head Chief of the Crees”), Plains Cree, c. 1849–56. Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, The Honourable George William Allan Collection, Daphne Cockwell Gallery of Canada: First Peoples, Gift of Sir Edmund Osler (912.1.42).
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, Leonardo da Vinci, c. 1842
Leonardo da Vinci, c. 1842. National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, bequest of R.A.V. Nicholson, Ottawa, 1965 (14705). Photo © NGC.
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, Lower Falls on the Pelouse River, 1847
Lower Falls on the Pelouse River, 1847. Stark Museum of Art, Orange, Texas (31.78.49).
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, The Man That Always Rides, Blackfoot, c. 1849–56
The Man That Always Rides, Blackfoot, c. 1849–56. Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, The Honourable George William Allan Collection, Daphne Cockwell Gallery of Canada: First Peoples, Gift of Sir Edmund Osler (912.1.44).
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, Maydoc-game-kinungee, “I Hear the Noise of a Deer,” Ojibway Chief, Michipicoten Island, September 1848
Maydoc-game-kinungee, “I Hear the Noise of a Deer,” Ojibway Chief, Michipicoten Island, September 1848. Library and Archives Canada, Ottawa, accession no. 1981-55-51, acquired with the assistance of a grant from the Minister of Communications under the terms of the Cultural Property Export and Import Act.
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, Medicine Pipe Stem Dance, Blackfoot, c. 1849–52
Medicine Pipe Stem Dance, 1848. Stark Museum of Art, Orange, Texas (31.78.148).
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, Medicine Pipe Stem Dance, Blackfoot, c. 1849–52
Medicine Pipe Stem Dance, Blackfoot, c. 1849–52. Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, The Honourable George William Allan Collection, Gift of Sir Edmund Osler (912.1.56).
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, Nesperces Indian, Nez Perce, c. 1849–56
Nesperces Indian, Nez Perce, c. 1849–56. Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, The Honourable George William Allan Collection, Gift of Sir Edmund Osler (912.1.72).
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, Portrait of a Half-Breed Cree Girl, 1859
Portrait of a Half-Breed Cree Girl, 1859 (frontispiece to Paul Kane, Wanderings of an Artist among the Indians of North America). Photo courtesy of Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto.
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, Portrait of Mrs. Conger of Cobourg, c. 1834
Portrait of Mrs. Conger of Cobourg, c. 1834. Samuel E. Weir Collection, RiverBrink Art Museum, Queenston, Ontario (982.81).
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, A Prairie on Fire, c. 1849–56
A Prairie on Fire, c. 1849–56. Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, The Honourable George William Allan Collection, Gift of Sir Edmund Osler (912.1.39).
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, Running Buffalo, Assiniboine, c. 1849–56
Running Buffalo, Assiniboine, c. 1849–56. Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, The Honourable George William Allan Collection, Gift of Sir Edmund Osler (912.1.46).
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, Scalp Dance, Colville, Colville (Interior Salish), c. 1849–56
Scalp Dance, Colville, Colville (Interior Salish), c. 1849–56. Royal Ontario Museum, The Honourable George William Allan Collection, Gift of Sir Edmund Osler (912.1.66).
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, Scene in the Northwest—Portrait of John Henry Lefroy, c. 1845–46
Scene in the Northwest—Portrait of John Henry Lefroy, c. 1845–46. Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto (103828).
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, Self-Portrait, c. 1843–45
Self-Portrait, c. 1843–45. Samuel E. Weir Collection, RiverBrink Art Museum, Queenston, Ontario (982.175).
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, Six Black Feet Chiefs, Blackfoot, c. 1849–55
Six Black Feet Chiefs, Blackfoot, c. 1849–55. Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, The Honourable George William Allan Collection, Gift of Sir Edmund Osler (912.1.50).
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, White Mud Portage, 1859
White Mud Portage, 1859 (chromolithograph from Paul Kane, Wanderings of an Artist among the Indians of North America). Photo courtesy of Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto.

 

Credits for Photographs and Works by Other Artists

 

Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, Buffalo Hunt on the Southwestern Prairies, by John Mix Stanley, 1845
Buffalo Hunt on the Southwestern Prairies, 1845, by John Mix Stanley. Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, D.C., Gift of the Misses Henry (1985.66.248,932).
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, A Country Tavern near Cobourg, Canada West, by Harriet Clench, 1849
A Country Tavern near Cobourg, Canada West, 1849, by Harriet Clench. Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto, purchase with assistance from Wintario, 1980 (79/317).
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, Fringe, possibly for a dress, possibly Plains Cree, collected by Kane c. 1845
Fringe, possibly for a dress, possibly Plains Cree, collected by Kane c. 1845. Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, gift of James and Elaine Slater and their four children, Michael, Kenneth, Lisa, and Abigail (987.197.1).
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, Front cover of Paul Kane, the Artist: Wilderness to Studio by Kenneth Lister
Front cover of Paul Kane, the Artist: Wilderness to Studio by Kenneth Lister (Toronto: Royal Ontario Museum, 2010).
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, Front cover of Paul Kane’s Frontier: Including Wanderings of an Artist among the Indians of North America by Paul Kane
Front cover of Paul Kane’s Frontier: Including Wanderings of an Artist among the Indians of North America by Paul Kane by J. Russell Harper (Austin: University of Texas Press for Amon Carter Museum, Fort Worth; and National Gallery of Canada, 1971).
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, Frontispiece of Paul Kane, Wanderings of an Artist among the Indians of North America, from Canada to Vancouver’s Island and Oregon through the Hudson’s Bay Company’s Territory and Back Again
Frontispiece of Paul Kane, Wanderings of an Artist among the Indians of North America, from Canada to Vancouver’s Island and Oregon through the Hudson’s Bay Company’s Territory and Back Again (London: Longman, Brown, Green, Longmans, and Roberts, 1859). Photo courtesy of Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto.
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, George Catlin, c. 1868, photographer unknown
George Catlin, c. 1868, photographer unknown. George Catlin papers, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. (Digital ID: 1601).
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, George Catlin’s Indian Gallery paintings and Native American dioramas installed at the United States National Museum, Washington, D.C., c. 1901
George Catlin’s Indian Gallery paintings and Native American dioramas installed at the United States National Museum, Washington, D.C., c. 1901. The Smithsonian Institution Archives, Washington, D.C. (78-3843).
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, George William Allan, photographed by William James Topley, Ottawa, February 1881
George William Allan, photographed by William James Topley, Ottawa, February 1881. Library and Archives Canada, Ottawa, Topley Studio / Library and Archives Canada / PA-026670.
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, Harlech Castle in Merioneth Shire with Snowdon at a Distance, by Paul Sandby, 1776
Harlech Castle in Merioneth Shire with Snowdon at a Distance, 1776, by Paul Sandby. National Library of Wales, Aberystwyth.
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, Harriet Clench, c. 1870, photographer unknown
Harriet Clench, c. 1870, photographer unknown. Cobourg and District Images, Cobourg, Ontario.
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, Heads of Clatsop Indians, c. 1804–6, by William Clark
Heads of Clatsop Indians, c. 1804–6, by William Clark. From Original Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition 1804–1806, volume 4 (New York: Dodd, Mead, & Company, 1905). Photo courtesy of American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia.
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, Illustration of an artist using a camera lucida
Illustration of an artist using a camera lucida. In Dictionnaire encyclopédique et biographique de l’industrie et des arts industriels (Paris: Librairie des dictionnaires, 1882).
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, Illustration of the camera lucida, from George Dollond’s Description of the Camera Lucida: An Instrument for Drawing in True Perspective, and for Copying, Reducing, or Enlarging Other Drawings ..., 1830
Illustration of the camera lucida, from George Dollond’s Description of the Camera Lucida: An Instrument for Drawing in True Perspective, and for Copying, Reducing, or Enlarging Other Drawings ... (London, 1830). Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, Map to Illustrate Mr. Kane’s Travels [1845–48] in the Territory of the Hudson’s Bay Company, 1859
Map to Illustrate Mr. Kane’s Travels [1845–48] in the Territory of the Hudson’s Bay Company, published in 1859, by Edward Weller and Paul Kane. Library and Archives Canada, Ottawa.
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, Newspaper portrait of the late Paul Kane, published in Canadian Illustrated News, October 28, 1871
Newspaper portrait of the late Paul Kane, published in Canadian Illustrated News, October 28, 1871. Cobourg and District Images, Cobourg, Ontario.
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, An Officer of the Chasseurs Commanding a Charge, by Théodore Géricault, 1812
An Officer of the Chasseurs Commanding a Charge, 1812, by Théodore Géricault. Musée du Louvre, Paris (4885).
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, Paul Kane’s studio sketch box, used between 1820 and 1860
Paul Kane’s studio sketch box, used between 1820 and 1860. Photo courtesy of National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa.
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, Paul Kane’s tombstone in St. James Cemetery, Toronto
Paul Kane’s tombstone in St. James Cemetery, Toronto. Photo courtesy of the author.
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, Round rattle, Northwest Coast, British Columbia, collected by Kane in 1847
Round rattle, Northwest Coast, British Columbia, collected by Kane in 1847. Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, gift of Raymond A. Willis in memory of his mother, “Chelsea,” daughter of Allan Cassels and granddaughter of the Honourable G.W. Allan (946.81.2).
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, Shoulder bag, Cree or Metis, 1840s
Shoulder bag, Cree or Metis, 1840s. Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, purchased by the Royal Ontario Museum with the assistance of a Moveable Cultural Property grant accorded by the Minister of Canadian Heritage under the terms of the Cultural Property Export and Import Act, and through the generous support of the Carolyn Sifton Foundation Inc. (989.61.1).
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, The Start of the Race of the Riderless Horses, by Horace Vernet, c. 1820
The Start of the Race of the Riderless Horses, c. 1820, by Horace Vernet, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, Catharine Lorillard Wolfe Collection, bequest of Catharine Lorillard Wolfe, 1887 (87.15.47).
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, Title page of George Catlin’s Letters and Notes on the Manners, Customs, and Condition of the North American Indian, 1842
Title page of George Catlin’s Letters and Notes on the Manners, Customs, and Condition of the North American Indian (London: Tilt & Bogue, 1842). The Newberry Library, Chicago.
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, Title page of Paul Kane, Wanderings of an Artist among the Indians of North America, from Canada to Vancouver’s Island and Oregon through the Hudson’s Bay Company’s Territory and Back Again, 1859
Title page of Paul Kane, Wanderings of an Artist among the Indians of North America, from Canada to Vancouver’s Island and Oregon through the Hudson’s Bay Company’s Territory and Back Again (London: Longman, Brown, Green, Longmans, and Roberts, 1859). Photo courtesy of Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto.
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, View of Paul Kane paintings in the Daphne Cockwell Gallery of Canada: First Peoples, Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto
View of Paul Kane paintings in the Daphne Cockwell Gallery of Canada: First Peoples, Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto. Photo by Brian Boyle.
Art Canada Institute, Paul Kane, Wahk-ta-Ge-Li, a Sioux Warrior, by Karl Bodmer, 1844
Wahk-ta-Ge-Li, a Sioux Warrior, 1844, by Karl Bodmer. Private collection.

 

Book Credits

 

Publisher

Sara Angel


Editorial Director

Meg Taylor


Web Director

Avery Swartz


Image Research Director

Angelica Demetriou


Chief Copy Editor

Ruth Gaskill


Editor

Sarah Brohman


Image Research

Avril McMeekin


Copy Editor

Ruth Gaskill


Translator and French Copy Editor

Dominique Denis

 

Digital Layout Manager

Simone Wharton


Administrative Assistant

Mary-Rose Sutton


Intern

Erica Yudelman

 

Design Template
Studio Blackwell

 


 

Copyright

© 2014 Art Canada Institute. All rights reserved. 
ISBN 978-1-4871-0032-2

Art Canada Institute 
Massey College, University of Toronto
4 Devonshire Place
Toronto, ON M5S 2E1

Library and Archives Canada Cataloguing in Publication

Gehmacher, Arlene, 1957-, author
Paul Kane : life & work / Arlene Gehmacher.

Includes bibliographical references.
Contents: Biography — Key works — Significance & critical issues — Style & 
technique — Sources & resources — Where to see.
Electronic monograph.
ISBN 978-1-4871-0034-6 (pdf).—ISBN 978-1-4871-0036-0 (epub)

1. Kane, Paul, 1810-1871.  2. Kane, Paul, 1810-1871—Criticism and 
interpretation.  3. Painters—Canada—Biography.  I. Art Canada Institute, issuing 
body  II. Title.

ND249.K3G46 2014                     759.11                      C2014-905582-X

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