• Ballets Russes

    A Paris-based ballet company formed by the Russian impresario Sergei Diaghilev in 1909. Part of France’s early twentieth-century avant-garde, Ballets Russes performed its first season in Paris; it later toured France and abroad, influencing a resurgent interest in ballet. Productions were treated as collaborations of artists from various disciplines. Georges Balanchine, Jean Cocteau, Michel Fokine, Joan Miró, Anna Pavlova, Pablo Picasso, and Igor Stravinsky were among the many dancers, choreographers, painters, and composers associated with Ballets Russes, which disbanded in 1929.

  • Balthus (French, 1908–2001)

    Born Balthasar Klossowski de Rola, this self-taught painter, illustrator, and stage designer from a highly artistic family whose circle included writer Rainer Maria Rilke and artist Pierre Bonnard. Although precociously talented, Balthus was not widely appreciated until late in his career, perhaps because his classically inspired oeuvre appeared incongruent with the ethos of modernism, which dominated the fine arts of his era.

  • Barbeau, Marcel (Canadian, b. 1925)

    A member of the Automatistes and a former student of its founder, Paul-Émile Borduas, at the École du meuble in Montreal. Barbeau alternated between a free approach in the Automatiste vein and painting in a hard-edge style with pure colour.

  • Barbizon

    A village on the edge of the forest of Fontainebleau near Paris and, from the 1830s to the 1870s, a gathering place for French landscape painters who rejected the academic style in favour of realism. This informal group, later known as the Barbizon school, emphasized painting en plein air, in and directly from nature, setting the path for Impressionism. Major artists of the group include Théodore Rousseau, Jean-François Millet, and Camille Corot.

  • Barclay, McClelland (American, 1891–1943)

    A major figure in twentieth-century intellectual history, Barthes was a semiotician, literary and social critic, philosopher, and essayist. Works such as Writing Degree Zero (1953) and Mythologies (1957) helped to usher in structuralism as a dominant theoretical framework, while Camera Lucida (1980) his rumination on photography, remains one of the most influential books of photo theory ever written.

  • Bartlett, William Henry (British, 1809–1854)

    A British illustrator who travelled extensively in North America from the 1830s to 1850s, making landscape drawings for various illustrated volumes. Bartlett contributed 120 drawings to Canadian Scenery Illustrated (1842), a project of the eminent American writer and editor Nathaniel Parker Willis.

  • bas-relief

    A type of sculpture in which the decorative motif projects slightly from the background plane. Bas-reliefs are common to exterior architectural design around the world.

  • Bates, Maxwell (Canadian, 1906–1980)

    An architect and artist whose expressionistic paintings are held at major institutions across Canada. As a soldier with the British Territorial Army during the Second World War, Bates was captured in France and spent five years in a POW camp. He recounted the experience in his book A Wilderness of Days (1978).

  • Bauhaus

    Open from 1919 to 1933 in Germany, the Bauhaus revolutionized twentieth-century visual arts education by integrating the fine arts, crafts, industrial design, and architecture. Teachers included Josef Albers, Walter Gropius, Wassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, and László Moholy-Nagy.

  • Baxter&, Iain (Canadian, b. 1936)

    A seminal figure in the history of Conceptual art in Canada. In 1966 he co-founded, with Ingrid Baxter, the N.E. Thing Co. Conceptual artists’ collective, and that same year launched the gallery and the visual arts program at Simon Fraser University in Burnaby, B.C. His work typically incorporates photography, performance, and installations. In 2005 Iain Baxter changed his name to Iain Baxter& to reflect his non-authorial approach to art production.

  • Beardsley, Aubrey (British, 1872–1898)

    A writer, draftsman, and illustrator, and a major figure in the late nineteenth-century movements of Art Nouveau and Symbolism. Beardsley produced a remarkable body of work in his short life; among his most famous drawings are those he made for Oscar Wilde’s Salome (1894).

  • Beardy, Jackson (Oji-Cree, Wasagamack First Nation, 1944–1984)

    A painter known for employing a graphic style that incorporates flat areas of warm colour and for depicting Indigenous legends and spiritual and cosmological concepts in his work. A founding member of the Professional Native Indian Artists Inc., Jackson spent most of the latter part of his career as an Aboriginal arts advisor and educator.

  • Beatty, J.W. (Canadian, 1869–1941)

    An influential painter and educator at the Ontario College of Art (now OCAD University), Toronto, who sought to develop a uniquely Canadian style of painting. Beatty was a contemporary of Tom Thomson and the Group of Seven, though his painting style retained more traditional aesthetics than their work did. His most renowned painting, The Evening Cloud of the Northland, 1910, is held at the National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa.

  • Beaver Hall Group

    Formed in 1920, this Montreal-based group of nineteen modern artists was concerned with pictorial representations of cityscapes, landscapes, and portraits. French modernism and the distinctly Canadian perspective of the Group of Seven influenced the Beaver Hall Group, also known as the Beaver Hall Hill Group. Members included Edwin Holgate, Sarah Robertson, and Anne Savage.

  • Bécart de Granville, Charles (Canadian, 1675–1703)

    Born in New France, this mapmaker and draftsman was also an attorney of the King of France in the provost’s court in Quebec City. Among his contemporaries his drawing skills were renowned; his talent as an artist continues to be recognized by historians of New France.

  • Bechtle, Robert (American, b. 1932)

    A painter and leading figure of Photorealism. The stunning realism, seemingly benign subject matter (cars, houses, families), and haphazard composition of his paintings all indicate his use of photographic source material, an important part of his process since the 1960s. A major retrospective of his work was held at SFMOMA in 2005 and travelled to other major art institutions.

  • Bell, Vanessa (British, 1879–1961)

    An interior designer and painter, Bell was a member of the Bloomsbury group, a British avant-garde circle of writers, artists, and intellectuals. An early adopter in Britain of non-representational painting, Bell reverted to a more naturalistic style after the First World War.

  • Bellocq, E.J. (American, 1873–1949)

    An obscure commercial photographer active in New Orleans in the 1910s, whose portraits of local prostitutes, taken on 8-by-10-inch glass plates, became famous after Lee Friedlander acquired the plates and reprinted them.

  • Bellows, George (American, 1882–1925)

    A painter and lithographer, famed student of Robert Henri, and co-organizer of the Armory Show. Bellows’s varied and prolific career—he quickly moved from portraits of child labourers to scenes of illegal boxing matches to seascapes—was cut short by his death from a ruptured appendix.

  • Belzile, Louis (Canadian, b. 1929)

    Born in Rimouski, Belzile trained as a painter in Toronto and Paris in the 1940s and 1950s. On returning to Quebec he became a founding member of the Plasticiens in 1955, working geometrically. Later he practised a more lyrical form of abstract art in contrast to that championed by the group.

  • Benner, Ron (Canadian, b. 1949)

    An artist, writer, and activist from London, Ontario. Benner studied agricultural engineering at the University of Guelph, and food production and consumption are the consistent subjects of his artworks. His widely exhibited photographic, mixed media, and garden installations have been exhibited internationally and are held by major Canadian institutions, including the National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, and the Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto.

  • Benton, Thomas Hart (American, 1889–1975)

    A painter, lithographer, and illustrator who believed strongly in art’s social function. Initially interested in abstraction, Benton soon rejected apolitical modernism, becoming a committed Regionalist and sought-after muralist. His monumental political narratives adorned numerous public and private buildings in his native Missouri, as well as in New York and Chicago.

  • Bergman, Eric (German/Canadian, 1893–1958)

    Born in Germany, Bergman arrived in Canada in 1914. The following year he found success as a commercial wood- and photo-engraver for Brigdens of Winnipeg Limited, where he worked on the Eaton’s catalogue among other projects. His fine art prints depict mainly natural landscapes and plant studies in black and white, showing high contrasts and attention to detail. He served as president of the Manitoba Society of Artists.

  • Besant, Annie (British, 1847–1933)

    A prominent social reformer who was active with numerous causes from the 1870s through the 1920s, chiefly women’s and workers’ rights, women’s health, national education, and Indian independence. In 1893 Besant settled in India, where she established the Indian Home Rule League and became an important member of the Indian National Congress. She was a member and a leader of the Theosophical Society, contributing to the worldwide spread of this esoteric spiritual movement

  • Bethune, Norman (Canadian, 1890–1939)

    A well-known physician and the inventor of several medical implements and the “mobile medical unit,” Bethune was a social justice advocate for the poor in Canada and an outspoken Communist. He engaged in international political struggles, notably in Spain during the Spanish Civil War and in China during the Sino-Japanese War.

  • Beuys, Joseph (German, 1921–1986)

    A versatile visual artist, performer, teacher, and political activist whose “expanded concept of art,” as he put it, held that every individual could act creatively and that creativity could infuse every aspect of life. Animals are an important theme in Beuys’s frequently Symbolist and expressionistic works. He also made use of felt and fat in his artworks, materials that held personal symbolism for him.

  • Biéler, André (Swiss/Canadian, 1896–1989)

    An important figure in Canadian art history for his arts activism (which contributed to the eventual founding of the Canada Council for the Arts), teaching, and prolific creative output. His paintings, murals, prints, and sculptures fuse a modernist concern for form, line, and colour with regionalist subjects: rural landscapes, figures, and genre scenes.

  • Biocentrism

    In contrast to anthropocentrism, Biocentrism is an ethical stance that values all forms of life equally rather than placing more inherent value on human beings over nature. Tied to environmental ethics and activism, biocentrism considers every species as part of an interdependent community and calls for a rethinking of humans’ relationship to their environment.

  • birchbark scroll

    Sacred scrolls made of birchbark, on which the Anishinaabe draw geometrical shapes and patterns to depict songs and other details of rituals. The scrolls are used in religious ceremonies and as a means of cultural transmission.

  • Blake, William (British, 1757–1827)

    A poet, visual artist, and mystical philosopher, considered a seminal figure of the Romantic period. Deeply religious and unconventional, Blake was fervently anti-rationalist and anti-materialist. Among his small circle of admirers were the Ancients (a group of English artists) and Dante Gabriel Rossetti.

  • Blaue Reiter

    Formed in 1911, a collective of artists of disparate styles and concerns—including Wassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee, August Macke, and Franz Marc—regarded as representing the apex of German Expressionism. The group had only two exhibitions before disbanding with the onset of the First World War.

  • Blavatsky, Helena (Russian, 1831–1891)

    A spiritualist and the prolific author of books on ancient wisdom traditions, the occult, and esoteric religions, Madame Blavatsky was a co-founder of the Theosophical Society in New York City in 1875.

  • Bley, Carla (American, b. 1936)

    A pianist and composer who figured prominently in the free-jazz movement of the 1960s, which emphasized improvisation over fixed composition, and whose pieces have been performed by musicians including George Russell and Jimmy Giuffre. Bley helped found the influential Jazz Composers’ Guild in New York in 1964.

  • Bloore, Ronald (Canadian, 1925–2009)

    A founding member of the abstract painting group The Regina Five, Ronald Bloore was an abstract painter and art teacher. Seeking to achieve a transcendental quality to his art that he saw captured in the ancient architecture of Greece, Turkey, and Egypt, in the early 1960s Bloore destroyed his earlier work and began explorations in black and white, employing bold, organic shapes. Architecture continued to inform his work and he began to link with the practice technically, making small, three-dimensional maquettes of his pieces before creating them in their full size.

  • Blue Mountain Pottery

    Founded in 1953 by Denis Tupy and Jozo Weider and closed in 2004, Blue Mountain Pottery was based in Collingwood, Ontario. The pottery is recognizable by Blue Mountain’s signature glazing technique called “reflowing decorating,” in which light and dark glazes are applied simultaneously to produce a distinctive streaked effect.

  • Bodmer, Karl (Swiss/French, 1809–1893)

    A painter and draftsman who in the early 1830s was hired to accompany an expedition to the American West specifically to record images of its cities, landscapes, and people. His depictions of the American wilderness were greatly admired in his time for their beauty and anthropological detail. In 1848 Bodmer joined the Barbizon School of painters in France, whose inspiration came from nature.

  • Boigon, Brian (Canadian, b. 1955)

    A designer, design and cultural theorist, and architect by training, Boigon directs and lectures in the Architectural Studies program at the University of Toronto. His research focuses on locomotive design and video game architecture.

  • Bonington, Richard Parkes (British, 1802–1828)

    Romantic landscape watercolourist who emigrated to France at age fourteen. Bonington studied with Baron Gros at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris and befriended Eugène Delacroix, who influenced him to paint historical subjects. He exhibited at the Paris Salon for the first time in 1822. Bonington died of tuberculosis in London, aged twenty-five.

  • Bonnard, Pierre (French, 1867–1947)

    A painter and printmaker associated with the Nabis, a group of French Post-Impressionist artists who emerged in the late 1880s and maintained a distance from the Parisian avant-garde. Bonnard often worked in a decorative mode and with an Impressionist use of colour; he painted interior scenes and landscapes, created posters and theatre sets, and designed household objects.

  • Borduas, Paul-Émile (Canadian, 1905–1960)

    The leader of the avant-garde Automatistes and one of Canada’s most important modern artists. Borduas was also an influential advocate for reform in Quebec, calling for liberation from religious and narrow nationalist values in the 1948 manifesto Refus global. (See Paul-Émile Borduas: Life & Work by François-Marc Gagnon.)

  • Bosch, Hieronymus (Netherlandish, c. 1450–1516)

    A highly influential artist known for pictures populated by multitudes of fantastic creatures and filled with marvellous detail. Bosch’s Garden of Earthly Delights (1490–1500)—a triptych depicting the pleasures of the Garden of Eden, the horrors of the Last Judgment, and the world in between—is among the most famous paintings in the Western art historical canon.

  • Botticelli, Sandro (Italian, 1445–1510)

    A highly renowned Florentine painter and draftsman. Among Botticelli’s best-known works are his frescoes that decorate Rome’s Sistine Chapel, and his mythological paintings The Birth of Venus, 1482–85, held at the Uffizi Gallery Museum, Florence, and Venus and Mars, c. 1485, held at the National Gallery, London.

  • Bouguereau, William (French, 1825–1905)

    A painter known for his traditional, academic approach to his craft, Bouguereau was arguably one of the most famous artists in France during his time. Many of his highly realist paintings were mythological and allegorical, and his interpretation of human subject matter was sentimental.

  • Bowman, James (American, 1793–1842)

    An itinerant portrait painter active in the United States, Europe, and Canada. In Quebec City, Montreal, and Toronto Bowman received commissions from leading society members and politicians; he completed ten paintings for Montreal’s Notre-Dame Basilica (eight of which are now lost).

  • Boyle, John (Canadian, b. 1941)

    A largely self-taught painter who grew up in London, Ontario, Boyle is a founding member of the Nihilist Spasm Band and exhibited with the London Regionalists. An ardent Canadian, he is particularly noted for his contributions to sociopolitical art in Canada. Over the years, Boyle has been an important agitator for artists’ rights: he is a cofounder of the Niagara Artists Centre and the first spokesperson of Canadian Artists’ Representation Ontario (CARO).

  • Boyle, Shary (Canadian, b. 1972)

    A leading contemporary artist with a politically and personally oriented practice that incorporates drawing, sculpture, painting, and performance. She works independently and collaboratively: past collaborations include Universal Cobra, 2015, with Shuvinai Ashoona and Illuminations Project, 2005–15, with Emily Duke. Boyle represented Canada at the Venice Biennale in 2013.

  • Brakhage, Stan (American, 1933–2003)

    An experimental, non-narrative filmmaker interested in the act of seeing and in encouraging people to see differently. His film Dog Star Man, 1961–64, is considered a pivotal work of the 1960s American avant-garde. Following twenty years as a film history professor in Colorado, he retired to Canada in 2002.

  • Brancusi, Constantin (Romanian, 1876–1957)

    An abstract sculptor, whose unique focus on expressing natural forms as simply as possible influenced later sculptors, including Amedeo Modigliani and Carl Andre. Active for most of his life in Paris, Brancusi became known in America following his inclusion in the Armory Show, the 1913 International Exhibition of Modern Art.

  • Brandtner, Fritz (German, 1896–1969)

    A prolific and influential visual artist in Canada, Brandtner immigrated to this country in 1928 and quickly established himself as a commercial artist and set designer; he also mounted a solo exhibition soon after his arrival. German Expressionism influenced his artistic output, as did his interest in social justice. He was an active teacher, and with Norman Bethune established the Children’s Art Centre, a Montreal arts school for poor children.

  • Braque, Georges (French, 1882–1963)

    A seminal figure in the history of modern art. Working alongside Picasso from 1908 to 14, Braque developed the principles of major phases of Analytic and Synthetic Cubism and, along with the latter, the use of collage. After the First World War he pursued a personal style of Cubism admired for its compositional and colouristic subtleties.

  • Breton, André (French, 1896–1966)

    A poet and the leader of the Surrealists, whose members included the artists Max Ernst, Salvador Dalí, and Man Ray, and the poets Paul and Gala Éluard. Breton outlined in successive manifestos the tenets and techniques of Surrealism, and he organized the group’s first exhibition in 1925.

  • Breuer, Marcel (Hungarian/American, 1902–1981)

    An influential modernist designer and architect associated with the Bauhaus, Breuer designed sculptural furniture with lightweight metal or wood. In 1926 he created the iconic Wassily chair (named after Wassily Kandinsky). After emigrating to the United States in 1937, Breuer focused on architecture, though he continued to design furniture.

  • Brigden, Arnold (British/Canadian, 1886–1972)

    A commercial artist and, from 1914 to 1956, manager of Brigdens of Winnipeg Limited, a branch of one of Canada’s oldest printing and graphic design firms, founded by his uncle. Apprenticed in wood- and photo-engraving, Brigden employed, supported, and collected the works of many young artists, including Charles Comfort, Eric Bergman, and Lionel LeMoine FitzGerald. He served on the art committee that supervised both the Winnipeg School of Art and Winnipeg Art Gallery, his estate later donating most of his important Canadian art collection to the gallery.

  • Brittain, Miller (Canadian, 1914–1968)

    Brittain first trained with Elizabeth Russell Holt, a central figure of the arts scene in Saint John, New Brunswick, before studying at the Art Students League of New York from 1930 to 1932. His drawings, paintings, watercolours, and murals reveal an enduring interest in social realism and psychology. Brittain was a founding member of the Federation of Canadian Artists.

  • Broadhead, William S. (British, 1888–1960)

    A British painter and commercial artist who worked at Grip Limited with Tom Thomson and other artists who went on to form the Group of Seven. He accompanied Thomson on a sketching trip in northern Ontario in 1912.

  • Brooker, Bertram (Canadian, 1888–1955)

    A British-born painter, illustrator, musician, poet, Governor General’s Award-winning novelist, and Toronto advertising executive. In 1927 Brooker became the first Canadian artist to exhibit abstract art. His work is in the National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, and other major collections.

  • Brown, D.P. (Canadian, b. 1939)

    A painter from rural Ontario whose work consistently explores themes of time, society, and the inhabited landscape. As a boy he was mentored by A.Y. Jackson and Will Ogilvie, but it was his family’s temporary move to northern Europe, where he first encountered an art-historical pantheon that included Vermeer and Bruegel, that had the greatest impact on his technique and subjects.

  • Bruegel, Pieter (Netherlandish, 1525–1569)

    An acknowledged master of the Northern Renaissance, known for the inventiveness of his work and its enduring and widespread popularity. His landscapes, parables, and religious images circulated widely as prints, ensuring the primacy of his creations within the visual culture of his era. Bruegel’s paintings often depicted the lives of Flemish commoners.

  • Brymner, William (Scottish/Canadian, 1855–1925)

    A painter and influential teacher who contributed greatly to the development of painting in Canada, Brymner instructed at the Art Association of Montreal. Several of his students, including A.Y. Jackson, Edwin Holgate, and Prudence Heward, became prominent figures in Canadian art.

  • Buchanan, Donald (Canadian, 1908–1966)

    An art historian, arts administrator, and the founder of the National Film Society of Canada (now the Canadian Film Institute). Buchanan worked for Canadian arts and media organizations throughout his career, including the National Film Board and the National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa. In the late 1950s, he began a parallel career as a photographer; his work was exhibited several times before his final appointment as director of the International Fine Arts Exhibition at Expo 67.

  • Burne-Jones, Edward (British, 1833–1898)

    A largely self-taught painter, illustrator, and designer, who became interested in art after meeting William Morris at Oxford, where Burne-Jones had intended to study for the priesthood. In the 1850s he moved to London, joining the Pre-Raphaelites soon before they disbanded. Like his forerunners in the group, he chose subjects that were largely medieval and mythical.

  • Burri, Alberto (Italian, 1915–1995)

    A former doctor, Burri started painting as a prisoner of war in the United States in the early 1940s, eventually incorporating unorthodox materials into his work, such as burlap sacks and sand. In 1951 he co-founded—with Mario Ballocco, Ettore Colla, and Giuseppe Capogrossi—the Gruppo Origine, which opposed the decorative aspect of abstract art, preferring its “incisive, expressive function.”

  • Burroughs, William S. (American, 1914–1997)

    A prolific and celebrated Beat Generation writer, best known for the novel Naked Lunch, 1959. Permeated with an anarchic attitude, his work influenced later countercultural groups including hippies and punks. His life was famously marked by drug and alcohol addiction, criminality, and violence, including the murder of his second wife in Mexico, for which he never served a sentence.

  • Burton, Dennis (Canadian, 1933–2013)

    A painter, illustrator, and teacher who rose to prominence with his overtly sexual, semi-abstract paintings of the 1960s. He was represented by the Isaacs Gallery in Toronto in the 1960s and 1970s and was a co-founder of the Artists’ Jazz Band.

  • Bush, Jack (Canadian, 1909–1977)

    A member of Painters Eleven, formed in 1953, Bush found his real voice only after critic Clement Greenberg visited his studio in 1957 and focused on his watercolours. Out of these Bush developed the shapes and broad colour planes that would come to characterize a personal colour-field style, parallel to the work of Morris Louis and Kenneth Noland. With them, Bush participated in Greenberg’s 1964 exhibition Post Painterly Abstraction.

  • Butler, Paul (Canadian, b. 1973)

    Born and based in Winnipeg, Butler is a multidisciplinary artist, whose artistic practice embraces and explores artistic exchange and collaboration. His work has been exhibited nationally and internationally at venues including the Museum of Contemporary Art Los Angeles and La maison rouge in Paris.

  • Bannerman, Frances Jones (Canadian, 1855–1940)

    An oil painter, watercolourist, and poet, Bannerman was one of the earliest North Americans to work in the Impressionist style. She became the first woman to be elected an associate member of the Royal Canadian Academy in 1882. At the Paris Salon in 1883, Bannerman contributedLe Jardin d’hiver, a rare early representation of Canadian subject matter to be shown at the exhibition. Later in life the artist developed rheumatoid arthritis and turned her focus to poetry.

  • Bastien-Lepage, Jules (French, 1848–1884)

    A leading French Naturalist painter, Bastien-Lepage was especially known for his rural scenes and portraits of famous performers. He studied with Alexandre Cabanel at the École des Beaux-Arts in 1867 and was awarded the prestigious Legion of Honour in 1879 for his Portrait of Sarah Bernhardt, 1879.

  • Brown, Eric (British/Canadian, 1877–1939)

    As the first director of the National Gallery of Canada, Brown held the position from 1912 until his death. Earlier, he had been curator of the gallery’s collection, at the invitation of Sir Edmund Walker, a banker and major patron of the arts. Brown was a passionate builder of the gallery’s collections, both international and Canadian, and travelled often to Europe to make contacts with artists and dealers.

  • Brown, Frederick (British, 1851–1941)

    A British oil painter and art teacher, Brown energetically opposed the Royal Academy of Arts’s conservatism in both his own style and his teaching methods. He became a founding member of the New English Art Club in 1886. He was influenced by James McNeill Whistler, the rustic Naturalism of Jules Bastien-Lepage, and Impressionism. Brown served as principal of the Westminster School of Art from 1877 to 1892 and taught at the Slade School of Fine Art from 1893 to 1918.

  • Bruce, William Blair (Canadian, 1859–1906)

    Regarded as one of Canada’s first Impressionist painters, Bruce studied at the Académie Julian in Paris and spent time at the artists’ colonies in Barbizon, Giverny, and Grez-sur-Loing, France. Two Canadian scholarships for artists are named in his honour, offering an opportunity to paint on the island of Gotland, Sweden, where he established an artist estate with his wife, the sculptor Carolina Benedicks-Bruce. A bequest of Bruce’s works by his wife and father to the City of Hamilton, Ontario, became the basis of the Art Gallery of Hamilton.

  • Barbeau, Marius (Canadian, 1883–1969)

    A pioneering anthropologist and ethnologist, Barbeau is considered the founder of folklore studies in Canada. Based at the National Museum of Canada, Ottawa, he studied French-Canadian and Indigenous communities, collecting songs, legends, and art, and documenting customs and social organization. His interests led him to work with several artists, including Emily Carr, A.Y. Jackson, and Jean Paul Lemieux.

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