• Iacovleff, Alexandre (Russian, 1887–1938)

    Iacovleff was a friend and contemporary of Vasili Shukhaev, the one-time teacher of Paraskeva Clark. Both artists moved to Paris in 1920, where they showed in various exhibitions of Russian art. From 1934 to 1937, Iacovleff was director of the painting department of the School of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, and corresponded with Paraskeva Clark in 1936.

  • Iacurto, Francesco (Canadian, 1908–2001)

    A celebrated painter and art teacher, and a passionate defender of academic art over the course of his seventy-year career.  An artistically gifted child, he entered Montreal’s École des beaux-arts (now part of the Université du Québec à Montréal) at age fourteen. His landscapes, city views, and portraits show his interest in texture and wonderful abilities with light effects.

  • Image Bank, Vancouver

    An artists’ correspondence network founded in 1969 in the tradition of the New York Correspondence School by Vancouver conceptual artists Michael Morris, Gary Lee-Nova, and Vincent Trasov, who took the respective names Marcel Dot (later, Marcel Idea), Artimus Rat, and Myra Peanut. Participants exchanged ideas, information, and materials through the post in a spirit of collaboration, with Morris and Trasov keeping track of addresses and image requests.

  • Images of Épinal

    Colourful engraved cards made originally by a French publisher who established a printing company in 1796 and named it after Épinal, his birthplace. New techniques of mechanical printing allowed the images to be cheaply made, and they reached a wide public. The cards depicted simple, cheerful moral fables or jokes and riddles for children, and the name became a byword for conventionally optimistic sayings or empty clichés.

  • impasto

    Paint applied so thickly that it stands out in relief and retains the marks of the brush or palette knife.

  • Impressionism

    A highly influential art movement that originated in France in the 1860s and is associated with the emergence of modern urban European society. Claude Monet, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, and other Impressionists rejected the subjects and formal rigours of academic art in favour of scenes of nature and daily life and the careful rendering of atmospheric effects. They often painted outdoors.

  • Indian Group of Seven

    A colloquial name that refers to the Professional Native Indian Artists Inc., coined in the early 1970s by the Winnipeg Free Press and subsequently adopted more widely. Members included Jackson Beardy, Eddy Cobiness, Alex Janvier, Norval Morrisseau, Daphne Odjig, Carl Ray, and Joseph Sanchez.

  • Indiana, Robert (American, b. 1928)

    Principally known as a Pop artist (and for his famous LOVE design, featuring the word in uppercase with a slanted letter “O”), Indiana was equally important to the development of hard-edge painting and assemblage art. He has often made text a central part of his paintings, screen prints, and sculptures.

  • Ingres, Jean-Auguste-Dominique (French, 1780–1867)

    A master of Neoclassicism who learned from one of the greatest artists of his age, Jacques-Louis David. In history paintings, portraits, and Orientalist fantasies (such as his iconic Grande Odalisque, 1814) Ingres’s brushwork is all but invisible and his emphasis on clean lines predominates. He is often contrasted with the exemplary Romanticist Eugène Delacroix.

  • Intermedia, Vancouver

    A short-lived non-profit organization established in 1967 to encourage Vancouver’s budding art scene and artistic community. Intermedia, which initially went by the name Intermedia Society, hosted exhibitions, workshops, seminars, and gatherings with the support of federal arts agencies. It became an important meeting place for artists and a site of creative exchange, spawning various West Coast artistic and literary movements before ceasing operations in 1972.

  • International Exhibition, London, 1862

    A world’s fair, also called the Great London Exposition, intended to display the latest developments in technology, industry, and the arts from thirty-six countries. Its buildings covered twenty-one acres in South Kensington, where the Natural History Museum and Science Museum now stand.

  • International Modern

    Emerging around 1920 and reaching its height by the mid-twentieth century, International Modern architecture embraced an unadorned aesthetic of rectilinear structures, with flat surfaces and large planes of glass held in steel frames. Among the most prominent International Modern architects are Walter Gropius, Le Corbusier, Richard Neutra, and Philip Johnson.

  • International With Monument, New York City

    A slick, market-savvy Conceptual art gallery that opened in New York’s East Village in 1983, when most other galleries in the area were showing Neo-Expressionist works in distinctly bohemian spaces. Among the artists to show there were Jeff Koons, Peter Halley, and Meyer Vaisman (a co-founder of the gallery, with Elizabeth Koury).

  • Isaacs Gallery

    A Toronto art gallery opened in 1955 by Avrom Isaacs. Originally called the Greenwich Gallery, it supported emerging Canadian artists—including Michael Snow, Graham Coughtry, Joyce Wieland, and Robert Markle—and hosted poetry readings, experimental music performances, and film screenings.

  • Italian Primitives

    The painters of the pre- and early Italian Renaissance, who worked from roughly the mid-thirteenth century to the end of the fifteenth century. This was a transformative period in Italian art, when it moved from a Greek- or Byzantine-inflected style to that which we associate today with the Renaissance.

  • Israëls, Jozef (Dutch, 1824–1911)

    Leading painter and etcher from the Hague School of Dutch Realist artists. Israëls studied the rigid academic style under Horace Vernet and Paul Delaroche in Paris, but turned to scenes of everyday life rather than historical subjects. He favoured Dutch rural workers and peasants, depicting them indoors and outdoors, working or at leisure, with attention to atmospheric light. In 1895, Israëls served on the committee to organize the first Venice Biennale.

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