• Eakins, Thomas (American, 1844–1916)

    A painter, sculptor, and photographer best known for his psychological and often unflattering portrait paintings. Success came posthumously to Eakins; little admired during his life, in the 1930s he came to be celebrated as one of his era’s greatest American artists.

  • East, Benoît (Canadian, b. 1915–n.d.)

    A painter and printmaker influenced by luminaries of the French avant-garde, including Georges Braque and Henri Matisse. He is best known for creating, with Marius Plamondon, a sixty-foot stained glass window for Montreal’s Queen Elizabeth Hotel. East taught lithography and engraving at the École des beaux-arts de Québec (now part of Université Laval).

  • Eastman, Seth (American, 1808–1875)

    An artist, topographer, and military officer who trained at West Point Military Academy. While stationed in Minnesota, Eastman began depicting First Nations peoples, and in 1847 he was commissioned to illustrate the monumental study Indian Tribes of the United States for the U.S. Congress.

  • Eckankar

    Founded by American Paul Twitchell in 1965, this religious movement was influenced by surat shabd yoga. Followers of Eckankar adopt various practices that facilitate soul transcendence by allowing a connection with the Divine Light and Sound. Eckankar translates as “coworker with God.”

  • École des beaux-arts de Québec

    Founded in 1922, the École des beaux-arts de Québec became an important centre for the study of applied arts and fine arts, including architecture, drawing, engraving, tapestry, decorative arts (design), and art history. Among its famous students were Maximilien Boucher, Raoul Hunter, and Alfred Pellan. In 1970 the school became part of Université Laval.

  • École du meuble

    In 1930 the artist Jean-Marie Gauvreau established the École du meuble, which trained its students in technical arts and drawing, painting, design, art history, sculpture, and even law. Many of Quebec’s future avant-garde artists, including Paul-Émile Borduas, Marcel Barbeau, Maurice Perron, and other signatories of the Refus global (1948), taught or received their training here.

  • El Greco (Greek, c. 1541–1614)

    Painter, sculptor, and architect considered the first master of the Spanish School. Born Doménikos Theotokópoulos in Crete, El Greco settled in Toledo, Spain, in 1576, where he executed major commissions throughout his career, including the prized altarpieces Espolio, 1577–79, and Burial of Count Orgaz, 1586–88.

  • Elder, Bruce (Canadian, b. 1947)

    An experimental filmmaker, critic, philosopher, and teacher, Elder rose to prominence in the 1980s with his film cycle The Book of All the Dead (1975–94) among the most ambitious projects in the history of avant-garde cinema. His book Image and Identity: Reflections on Canadian Film and Culture (1989) is highly regarded and features in Canadian Studies programs.

  • engraving

    The name applied to both a type of print and the process used in its production. Engravings are made by cutting into a metal or plastic plate with specialized tools and then inking the incised lines. The ink is transferred to paper under the immense pressure of a printing press.

  • Ennutsiak (Nunavik/Iqaluit, 1896–1967)

    An Inuit sculptor from northern Quebec, Ennutsiak gained early recognition for his scenes of everyday life; he tackled unusual subjects such as birthing scenes and groups of people reading the Bible.

  • Estes, Richard (American, b. 1932)

    A Photorealist painter whose pictures are often constructed from more than one photographic source image, thereby presenting a “reality” that never existed or could never be perceived by the naked eye. His preferred subject is the built environment, typically of New York City.

  • etching

    A printmaking technique that follows the same principles as engraving but uses acid instead of a burin to cut through the plate. A copper plate is coated with a waxy acid resist; the artist draws an image into the wax with a needle. The plate is then immersed in an acid bath, incising the lines and leaving the rest of the plate untouched.

  • Etrog, Sorel (Romanian/Canadian, 1933–2014)

    A painter, illustrator, draftsman, and filmmaker, Etrog was known principally as a sculptor, creating variously sized abstract works reflecting the human form. One of his many commissions was the bronze statuette known from 1968 to 1980 as the Etrog, the award for excellence presented to Canadian filmmakers, subsequently called the Genie. His work is in important public and private collections in Canada, the United States, and Europe.

  • Ewart (née Clay), Mary (American/Canadian, 1872–1939)

    American-born painter who settled in Winnipeg in 1907. Ewart trained at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts and with John Singer Sargent and James McNeill Whistler. She was a strong advocate for the establishment of the Winnipeg Art Gallery and Winnipeg School of Art, arguing for social as well as aesthetic reasons. Ewart also served as president of the Western Art Association.

  • ex-voto

    Directed at a god or saint, an ex-voto is an offering: for something desired, or in gratitude for something that has been received. These offerings may be in the form of pictures, printed Bible verses, figurines, crucifixes, other religious objects, or small personal items such as clothing, jewellery, or toys.

  • Exhibition of Contemporary Canadian Painting (“Southern Dominions Exhibition”)

    Titled in full the Exhibition of Contemporary Canadian Painting: Arranged on Behalf of the Carnegie Corporation of New York for Circulation in the Southern Dominions of the British Empire, this show was first held at the Empire Exhibition in Johannesburg, South Africa, in 1936. It subsequently toured major cities in South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, and Hawaii from September 1936 to April 1939.

  • Exhibition of Paintings, Drawings, and Sculpture by Artists of the British Empire Overseas (“Coronation Exhibition”) London, England, 1937

    An exhibition held at the Royal Institute Galleries, London, that formed part of the celebrations for the Coronation of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth on May 12, 1937. The Canadian section subsequently toured to several English regional galleries until April 1938.

  • Expo 67

    The world’s fair of 1967, held in Montreal, was a celebration of Canada’s Centennial. With sixty-two participating nations and attendance of over 50 million people, Expo solidified Montreal’s reputation as an international city and Canada’s as a place for innovation.

  • Expo 86

    Fifty-five countries participated in this world’s fair, held in Vancouver in celebration of the city’s centennial. Attended by over 22 million people, Expo 86 is now recognized as having been instrumental to the growth and development of Vancouver and to raising the city’s status internationally.

  • Expressionism

    An intense, emotional style of art that values the representation of the artist’s subjective inner feelings and ideas. German Expressionism started in the early twentieth century in Germany and Austria. In painting, Expressionism is associated with an intense, jarring use of colour and brush strokes that are not naturalistic.

  • Eyland, Cliff (Canadian, b. 1954)

    An artist, writer, curator, and professor of painting at the University of Manitoba in Winnipeg. Since 1981 Eyland has concentrated on creating small-format drawings and paintings, the size of index cards. A permanent installation of over one thousand of his small paintings opened at the Millennium Library in Winnipeg in 2005.

  • Eyre, Ivan (Canadian, b. 1935)

    A lauded, prolific, and widely collected painter, sculptor, and draftsman. Eyre’s significance lies equally in his teaching; a professor of painting and drawing at the University of Manitoba in Winnipeg for more than three decades, he has worked closely with generations of Canadian artists. He is known primarily for his majestic prairie landscapes.

  • en plein air

    French for “open air,” used to describe the practice of painting or sketching outdoors to observe nature and in particular the changing effects of light.

  • Ewen, Paterson (Canadian, 1925–2002)

    Born in Montreal and later settling in London, Ontario, Ewen was involved with the Automatistes, the Plasticiens, and the London Regionalists, although he was never fully identified with a single movement. His mature works embraced experimentation with colour combinations and textures, and the use of gouged plywood as a painting surface. These invoked landscape and natural elements through abstract and geometric gestures. (See Paterson Ewen: Life & Work by John Hatch.)

  • Eastlake, Mary Bell (Canadian, 1864–1951)

    A painter, jewellery maker, and watercolourist, Eastlake was born in Ontario and later studied with William Merritt Chase in New York and at the Académie Colarossi in Paris. From about 1893 to 1939, Eastlake lived in England, where she designed and produced jewellery with her husband. She exhibited widely with many art associations in Canada and held a solo exhibition at the Art Gallery of Toronto (now the Art Gallery of Ontario) in 1927.

  • École des beaux-arts de Montréal

    The École des beaux-arts de Montréal was founded in 1922, the same year as its sister institution, the École des beaux-arts de Québec. The curriculum emphasized industrial arts, trades, and commercial design, but the school gradually came into its own as an important training ground for painters, sculptors, and other serious artists, culminating in what has been called its “golden age” in the late 1950s and early 1960s. In 1969 it was absorbed into the fine arts department of the Université du Québec à Montréal.

  • Exquisite Corpse

    A collaborative method of creating a work, invented by the Surrealists. A participant draws on a sheet of paper, folds it to conceal the illustration, and passes it to the next player to extend the drawing. André Breton wrote that the technique, adapted from an old parlour game of words, emerged among artist friends at 54 rue du Chateau, Paris. Early participants were Marcel Duchamp, Jacques Prévert, Man Ray, and Joan Miró.

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