• Faucher, Jean-Charles (Canadian, 1907–1995)

    A painter and illustrator influenced by mid-century American regionalist artists. Trained at the École des beaux-arts de Montréal (now part of the Université du Québec à Montréal), Faucher later taught art for the city’s Catholic school board.

  • Fautrier, Jean (French, 1898–1964)

    Employing overtly figurative or abstract styles, Fautrier created etchings, paintings, book illustrations, and sculpture. He is associated with 1950s Art Informel, though the gestural style seen in several of his paintings of the 1920s prefigures this movement by several decades.

  • Fauvism

    The style of the Fauves (French for “wild beasts”), a group of painters who took their name from a derogatory phrase used by the French journalist Louis Vauxcelles. As a historical movement, Fauvism began at the controversial Salon d’Automne in 1905, and ended less than five years later, in early 1910. Fauvism was characterized by bold, unmixed colours, obvious brush strokes, and a subjective approach to representation. Among the most important of the Fauves were Henri Matisse, André Derain, and Maurice de Vlaminck.

  • Favro, Murray (Canadian, b. 1940)

    A major contemporary multidisciplinary artist whose sculpture, drawings, and installations have been exhaustively exhibited and collected for the past five decades. Favro moved from Huntsville to London, Ontario, as a teenager; in the 1960s he was part of a dynamic group of London-based artists that included Jack Chambers and Greg Curnoe.

  • Federal Art Project

    This American, New Deal agency organized and funded employment in the visual arts under the Emergency Relief Appropriation Act of 1935 and was part of the Works Progress Administration (renamed the Work Projects Administration in 1939). Artists supported by the Federal Art Project created 200,000 murals, posters, illustrations, and fine artworks, many of lasting importance.

  • Federation of Canadian Artists

    A non-profit, membership-based organization devoted to advancing Canadian art at home. It was founded in 1941 by artists including André Biéler and Lawren Harris, both members of the Group of Seven. The Federation of Canadian Artists maintains a members’ gallery on Granville Island, Vancouver.

  • Fergusson, John Duncan (Scottish, 1874–1961)

    A prominent early twentieth-century painter, Fergusson studied in Paris and spent many years there in artistic circles that included Impressionists, Fauves, and Cubists. His work, like that of other artists now known as the Scottish Colourists, displays the bold hues and graphic forms typical of French Post-Impressionist painting.

  • Ferron, Marcelle (Canadian, 1924–2001)

    A painter, sculptor, and stained-glass artist and a member of the Montreal-based Automatistes. Ferron studied at the École des beaux-arts in Montreal (now part of the Université du Québec à Montréal) before meeting Paul-Émile Borduas, whose approach to modern art became crucial to her artistic development. In 1953 she moved to France, where she lived for thirteen years.

  • figure-ground relationship

    A compositional term referring to the perception of an object (the figure), as distinguished from its surround (the ground), especially in a context where this distinction is ambiguous. These two elements are interdependent—one defines the other. They can also be articulated as positive and negative shapes.

  • Fink, Don (American, b. 1923)

    An abstract painter whose work is frequently gestural and calligraphic in style. Fink studied at the Walker Art Center in Minneapolis and the Art Students League of New York before moving to Paris in the 1950s, where he participated in several solo and group exhibitions.

  • Fischl, Eric (American, b. 1948)

    One of his era’s most important figurative painters, Fischl’s early work concentrates on depicting the dark side of the American suburbs—an environment he knew well from his upbringing on New York’s Long Island—which was not considered a subject appropriate for art at the time. He taught at the Nova Scotia College of Art & Design (now NSCAD University), Halifax, from 1974 to 1978.

  • Fisher, Brian (Canadian, 1939–2012)

    An abstract artist and arts educator, Fisher became active in the vibrant art scene in Vancouver, British Columbia, in the 1960s and 1970s. During his career, he had both solo and group exhibitions, nationally and internationally. His most important Canadian commission was the mural he painted for the Montreal International Airport at Dorval. His work is held in collections across the country, including at the Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto, the Vancouver Art Gallery, the National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, and the Musée des beaux arts du Québec.

  • FitzGerald, Lionel LeMoine (Canadian, 1890–1956)

    A Winnipeg-born painter and printmaker, FitzGerald was a member of the Group of Seven from 1932 to 1933. He favoured depictions of prairie landscapes and houses, which he executed in pointillist, precisionist, and abstract styles. (See Lionel LeMoine FitzGerald: Life & Work by Michael-Parke Taylor.)

  • Fluxus

    A movement started in Germany in 1962 defined by an attitude of rebellion against artistic conservatism and professionalism rather than a particular style. Street art and festivals figured prominently in Fluxus activities, which were eventually centred in New York City and lasted until the early 1970s. Major influences were the composer John Cage and the artist Marcel Duchamp.

  • Fones, Robert (Canadian, b. 1949)

    An artist and writer born in London, Ontario. Since 1976 he has lived in Toronto, where he is an active member of the artistic community as a board member, curator, arts writer, and teacher. Fones has explored issues of artistic production, materials, and representation in his photographs, sculptures, watercolours, and installations.

  • Fontana, Lucio (Argentine/Italian, 1899–1968)

    An innovative abstract sculptor and painter born in Argentina. In Milan in 1947 Fontana founded Spazialismo, a movement that prefigured performance and Land art in its concern for time, space, and dynamism. In the late 1940s he began to slash and puncture his paintings, a novel technique intended to refute the canvas’s flatness. 

  • Forrest, Greg (Canadian, b. 1965)

    A Nova Scotian artist known for his 1:1 scale sculptures in bronze, wood, and steel. In his Anything Less Is a Compromise, 2004, the famous Stanley Cup hockey trophy sits atop a washing machine, evoking the pedestal-artefact formation standard in sculpture; his Drum Kit, 2002, presents The Who drummer Keith Moon’s 1964 instrument scattered across the floor. These bronzes are in the collection of the Art Gallery of Nova Scotia in Halifax.

  • Forrestall, Tom (Canadian, b. 1936)

    A painter associated with Atlantic Realism whose carefully crafted, compelling pictures draw from a wide range of real and imagined sources. Mentored by Alex Colville at Mount Allison University in Sackville, New Brunswick, in the 1950s, Forrestall paints in egg tempera, a technique introduced to him by Colville and Forrestall’s classmate Christopher Pratt.

  • Frampton, Hollis (American, 1936–1984)

    Initially known as a photographer, Frampton is now largely remembered for his theoretical writings and experimental, non-narrative films. He was also an influential teacher of film, film history, photography, and design, holding posts at various institutions in the New York area during the last twenty-five years of his life.

  • Francis, Sam (American, 1923–1994)

    A painter and printmaker known for his expressive use of light and colour. Francis was influenced by the Quebec artist Jean-Paul Riopelle, whom he met while in Paris in the 1950s. Although associated with both Art Informel and Post-Painterly Abstraction, Francis was reluctant to be aligned with any movement.

  • Franck, Albert (Dutch/Canadian, 1899–1973)

    Born in the Netherlands, Franck immigrated to Canada following the First World War. He is known for his watercolours and oil paintings of Toronto streets and houses. Franck was an important influence on Painters Eleven.

  • Frankenthaler, Helen (American, 1928–2011)

    A New York School artist who developed specific techniques to create atmospheric effects in her paintings, including blotting and staining unprepared canvas with thin pigments. Frankenthaler also experimented with woodcuts, colour printing, and sculpture.

  • Fraser, John Arthur (Canadian, 1838–1898)

    A painter, photographer, illustrator, and art teacher born in England. Upon immigrating to Canada around 1860, Fraser began painting studio backdrops for the photographer William Notman, becoming a partner in Notman’s Toronto firm in 1867.

  • Freedman, Daniel (n.d.)

    Daniel (Danny) Freedman was an actor who lived at 78 Gerrard Street West with AA Bronson, Felix Partz, Jorge Zontal, and Mimi Paige. He was a judge of The 1971 Miss General Idea Pageant, 1971, a performance held at the Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto.

  • Freifeld, Eric (Russian/Canadian, 1919–1984)

    A renowned artist and influential teacher of figure drawing at the Ontario College of Art (now OCAD University), Toronto, who showed major promise from a young age. Freifeld’s interests and output were broad, but he is perhaps best known for a series of structural, minutely detailed watercolours that placed him among the leading Canadian artists of his generation.

  • French existentialism

    A mid-twentieth-century cultural movement that manifested in literature, film, and philosophy. Popularly associated with the philosophers Jean-Paul Sartre, Simone de Beauvoir, Albert Camus, and Maurice Merleau-Ponty, its main ideas are that human existence is essentially inexplicable and meaningless and that human beings are free and independent actors.

  • French, Jared (American, 1905–1988)

    A mostly figurative painter and photographer, and an important member of the Depression-era gay artistic community. He was a member of the PaJaMa photographic collective along with his wife, Margaret Hoening, and his lover Paul Cadmus. He was deeply interested in Carl Jung’s psychoanalytical theories and suggested that his paintings be viewed in light of Jung’s writings.

  • Frère Luc (French, 1614–1685)

    A Franciscan friar, painter, and architect, and the best-known of the artists of his religious order who travelled to New France. Luc arrived in New France in 1670, and planned the new chapel of the Récollets as well as made several church paintings.

  • Freud, Lucian (German/British, 1922–2011)

    A figurative painter equally influenced by Surrealism, New Objectivity, and Ingres’s variety of French classicism, Freud nonetheless remained apart from any contemporary art movement. A grandson of Sigmund Freud, he produced an intensely personal body of work, with his models selected from his own family and immediate circle. Similarities can be drawn between his work and that of painter Francis Bacon.

  • Frey, Max (German, 1874–1944)

    A painter, illustrator, and graphic designer, Frey painted portraits and landscapes influenced by Symbolism. He was a member of the Dresden Art Cooperative and taught at the Dresden Academy of Arts and Crafts.

  • Friedrich, Caspar David (German, 1774–1840)

    One of the major Romantic painters, and the most exemplary of the movement’s German practitioners. Friedrich’s dramatic landscapes—seascapes and mountains, forests and farmland—are both realistic and symbolic, painted in meticulous detail but expressive of the artist’s deeply held mystical and spiritual beliefs.

  • frieze

    Architectural term for the entablature between the architrave and cornice of a building. Also employed as an ornamental border on furniture and walls. In painting the term may denote a pictorial element consisting of a horizontal line of figures or objects.

  • Funnel Experimental Film Theatre

    An experimental film collective and theatre located in Toronto from 1977 to 1989, dedicated to the production, distribution, and exhibition of 8mm, Super 8, and 16mm films. Many of its members were connected to the Ontario College of Art (now OCAD University), among them Funnel co-founder Ross McLaren.

  • Furnival, Stan (Canadian, 1913–1980)

    A graphic artist, Furnival served as art director of Chatelaine magazine in 1952–53. During his tenure at the magazine, he frequently commissioned illustrator Oscar Cahén and is seen to have been an early supporter of Cahén’s career.

  • Futurism

    Founded in 1909, this Italian movement in modern art and literature embraced elements of Cubism and Neo-Impressionism. The Futurist aesthetic idealized technological advances, war, dynamism, and the energy of modern life. Among the most renowned Futurist artists are Giacomo Balla, Umberto Boccioni, Carlo Carrà, and Luigi Russolo.

  • Ford, Harriet (Canadian, 1859–1938)

    A painter, muralist, writer, and jewellery maker, Ford studied at the Central Ontario School of Art in Toronto in 1881, then travelled to England and France to continue her art education at the Royal Academy of Arts and Académie Colarossi. She was a founding member of the Society of Mural Decorators. Ford co-edited the magazine Tarot (1896) which was dedicated to the Arts and Crafts Movement.

  • formalism

    The study of art by analyzing a work’s form and style to determine its meaning and quality. It emphasizes colour, texture, composition, and line over narrative, concept, or social and political context. In the 1960s, American critic Clement Greenberg strongly championed formalism. By the end of the 1960s, postmodernism and conceptual art began to challenge formalism as a system of critique.

  • Fried, Michael (American, b. 1939)

    A prominent modernist art and literary critic, art historian, and poet, Fried was a formalist who differentiated between the artwork itself, the experience of viewing the artwork, and the sociopolitical context in which it was made. His 1967 essay Art and Objecthood is a well-known piece of art criticism examining Minimalist art. He later abandoned art criticism to write about the history of early modernism. He teaches in the Humanities Department at Johns Hopkins University.

  • figurative

    A descriptive term for an artwork that depicts or references recognizable objects or beings, including humans. Figurative art is often representational and takes source material from the real world, although its subjects may be overlaid with metaphors and allegory. The term arose in popular usage around the 1950s to describe artwork in contrast with the Abstract Expressionist movement as well as nonfigurative and non-objective art.

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