• tableau

    French for “picture,” the term "tableau" refers to a formal grouping of people or objects, a striking scene.

  • taches

    French word for “spots” or “markings,” used to describe artist Robert Houle’s technique of linear hatching, which echoes Indigenous aesthetic practices such as quillwork and the painterly hatch-marks of Jasper Johns.

  • Tachism

    Along with Lyrical Abstraction and Art Informel, Tachism refers to an art movement of the 1950s considered the European counterpart of Abstract Expressionism. Strongest in France, it is also associated with Automatism (as practised by the Surrealists), for its emphasis on unplanned mark making, allowing imaginative expression to arise freely from the unconscious mind.

  • Tack, Augustus Vincent (American, 1870–1949)

    Early American modernist painter specializing in portraits, murals, and abstract landscapes that influenced the later colour-field painters like Milton Avery and Clyfford Still. Many of his landscapes were inspired by photographs of the American West, which Tack imbued with subjectivity and spiritual themes. Tack taught at the Art Students League in New York and Yale University.

  • Taçon, Edna (Canadian, 1905–1980)

    Originally trained as a violinist, Taçon turned to abstract painting on the encouragement of her husband, the artist Percy Henry Taçon. She ultimately became a prominent figure in the non-objective art movement during the first half of the twentieth century, her fame eclipsing that of her husband.

  • Taçon, Percy (British/Canadian, 1902–1983)

    An abstract painter and teacher of art and modern languages who emigrated to Canada from London in 1907. He was a member of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts and the husband of Edna Taçon, a prominent figure in the non-objective art movement during the first half of the twentieth century.

  • Tailfeathers, Gerald (Káínai, 1925–1975)

    One of the first professional Indigenous artists in the Canadian art world, Tailfeathers became known in the 1950s for his paintings and drawings of the Blood people’s life in the late nineteenth century, often featuring ceremonial life and hunting scenes. Concurrent to his career as a painter and sculptor, he worked as a graphic artist for the Hudson’s Bay Company.

  • Talmage, Algernon (British, 1871–1939)

    British Impressionist painter, etcher, and portraitist. Talmage was an official war artist for the Canadian government alongside Augustus John during the First World War. He was an early influence on Emily Carr as a teacher at the Cornish School of Landscape, Figure and Sea Painting in St. Ives, England, encouraging the development of her forest paintings.

  • Tanabe, Takao (Canadian, b. 1926)

    Tanabe is a prominent British Columbia painter. Interned along with his family and the majority of Japanese Canadians under government policy during the Second World War, he went on to study art in Canada, the United States, England, and Japan. Tanabe’s early work was influenced by Japanese aesthetics and by the hard-edged style he was exposed to in New York City in the 1950s and 1960s. After he returned to Vancouver in 1980, he turned from abstraction to landscape painting.

  • Teevee, Ningiukulu (Ningeokuluk) (Kinngait, b. 1963)

    A leading graphic artist, author, and illustrator from Cape Dorset. She first contributed to the Cape Dorset Annual Print Collection in 2004, and her critical and public recognition has risen steadily since. Her stylistically varied oeuvre includes formal experiments, particularly with pattern, and reveals an interest in the relationship between representation and abstraction.

  • The Burdick Gallery

    This commercial gallery was established in 1991 in Washington, D.C. After closing its storefront operation, it continued as an online gallery until its owner passed away.

  • The European Iceberg

    The European Iceberg: Creativity in Germany and Italy Today was a 1985 exhibition of contemporary German and Italian art mounted by the invited curator, Germano Celant, at the Art Gallery of Ontario. The exhibit included Lothar Baumgarten’s Monument for the Native People of Ontario, a Eurocentric criticism of colonial rule. Artists such as Carl Beam and Robert Houle responded with work that highlighted issues of self-determination and representation in contemporary Indigenous art.

  • The Jenkins Art Gallery

    A Toronto-based gallery operated by the art dealer Thomas Jenkins on Grenville Street in the early decades of the twentieth century. It exhibited both Canadian and international artists. In 1920 it held a major exhibition and sale of paintings by Homer Watson.

  • The Omega Workshops

    Roger Fry established this Bloomsbury-based company in 1913 and co-directed it with Vanessa Bell and Duncan Grant. The company employed fine artists, and fine art principles, in the production of furniture, textiles, ceramics, and other household objects, seeking to remove the distinction between the fine and decorative arts. The Omega Workshops closed in 1919.

  • Theatre Passe Muraille Company, Toronto

    A Toronto theatre founded in 1968 out of Rochdale College with a mandate to develop new Canadian plays. Passe Muraille remains an integral part of the city’s theatre scene, producing experimental and eclectic work by a wide range of artists from diverse communities and disciplinary backgrounds.

  • Thielcke, Henry Daniel (British, c. 1788–1874)

    A painter and engraver who spent the latter half of his life in the United States and Canada. Thielcke produced history paintings and portrait miniatures in addition to the large-scale painted portraits fashionable in early nineteenth-century England, which he helped popularize in Lower Canada.

  • Thom, Ron (Canadian, 1923–1986)

    Ronald James Thom trained as a painter at the Vancouver School of Art before apprenticing to the Vancouver architecture firm Thompson, Berwick and Pratt Sharp and Thompson, Berwick, Pratt (later Thompson, Berwick, Pratt and Partners) After designing Toronto’s Massey College in 1963, he moved to Toronto and set up his eponymous practice. Over the course of his career, Thom designed the Trent University campus in Peterborough, Ontario (1969), and the Metropolitan Toronto Zoo (1974), as well as over one hundred houses in the Vancouver area.

  • Thomas, Jeff (urban-Iroquois, b. 1956)

    Photographer and curator whose work is informed by the absent identity of the “urban Iroquois.” Thomas seeks to create an image archive of his experiences as an Iroquois man living in cities and to place Indigenous peoples in contemporary urban contexts, sometimes with a wry tone. His series Indians on Tour adopts a street photography aesthetic to capture plastic Indigenous figurines within city scenes.

  • Thomas, Roy (Ojibway, 1949–2004)

    Associated with the Woodland School, Thomas painted representations of the teachings he inherited from his ancestors and that he saw in visions. His work is known for its strong design and bold use of colour and lines. The Art Gallery of Ontario and the Royal Ontario Museum in Toronto, and the McMichael Canadian Art Collection in Kleinberg, Ontario, house his work.

  • Thomson, Tom (Canadian, 1877–1917)

    A seminal figure in the creation of a national school of painting, whose bold vision of Algonquin Park—aligned stylistically with Post-Impressionism and Art Nouveau—has come to symbolize both the Canadian landscape and Canadian landscape painting. Thomson and the members of what would in 1920 become the Group of Seven profoundly influenced one another’s work. (See Tom Thomson: Life & Work by David P. Silcox.) 

  • Thunderbird

    Considered one of the highest spirits (manitous) in Ojibway culture, and taken as a symbol for the culture itself, this supernatural bird is said to produce thunder and lightning and tend to the health and well-being of the Earth.

  • Tinguely, Jean (Swiss, 1925–1991)

    A sculptor of kinetic, monumental, and self-destructing works, such as Homage to New York, 1960, which ignited outside of New York’s Museum of Modern Art. Tinguely was one of the founders of Nouveau réalisme and produced many collaborative works over the course of his career.

  • Tinning, George Campbell (Canadian, 1910–1996)

    Born in Saskatoon, Campbell Tinning moved to Montreal in 1939 to work as an artist, illustrator, and graphic designer. An official Canadian war artist during the Second World War, he later turned toward abstraction.

  • Tissot, James (French, 1836–1902)

    A painter, etcher, and illustrator trained in the 1850s at the École des beaux-arts in Paris alongside James McNeill Whistler and Edgar Degas. Tissot participated in the Paris Commune and had to flee the city after its suppression in 1870, only returning thirteen years later. His best-known paintings depict scenes of contemporary Parisian life.

  • Titian (Italian, c. 1488–1576)

    Tiziano Vecellio, known as Titian in English, was one of the greatest painters of the Venetian Renaissance, whose formal innovations in brushwork and colour signalled the rise of a new aesthetic in Western art. Patronized by royalty, Titian enjoyed a formidable reputation throughout much of Europe. His work influenced later painters, including Diego Velázquez and Peter Paul Rubens.

  • Tobey, Mark (American, 1890–1976)

    An abstract painter whose work was influenced by Cubism and Chinese calligraphy and frequently evoked his Baha’i faith. Tobey’s all-over “white writing” paintings of the 1930s to the 1950s were developed independently of Abstract Expressionism. He lived in Seattle for many years and was associated with the Northwest School.

  • Tondo

    A circular painting or carving, which emerged as a distinct art form in fifteenth-century Florence. During the Renaissance, tondi were principally created to decorate domestic settings and as gifts for new mothers. The form has been regularly taken up by artists since then, from Caravaggio and Ingres to Picasso and Pollock.

  • Tonks, Henry (British, 1862–1937)

    Surgeon, draftsman, and influential British Impressionist painter and teacher. During the First World War, Tonks worked with various Red Cross factions and hospitals to create striking pastel and pen-and-ink portraits of injured soldiers. Tonks taught at the Slade School of Fine Art beginning in 1892, working with pupils like Augustus John, Gwen John, Wyndham Lewis, and Dorothy Stevens.

  • Tooker, George (American, 1920–2011)

    A painter whose mysterious images of twentieth-century urban life brim with anxiety and foreboding. Committed to figurative art during a time when American modernism was defined by abstraction, Tooker existed at the margins of the art world for much of his career. Paul Cadmus and Jared French were important early influences on his style and artistic sensibility.

  • Toonoo (Cape Dorset, 1920–1969)

    A carver and one of the first generation of Inuit artists to sell work to southern markets, Toonoo was also the father of the artists Oviloo Tunnillie, Jutai Toonoo, and Samonie Toonoo. His work is held in the collections of institutions, including the Winnipeg Art Gallery.

  • Toonoo, Jutai (Kinngait, 1959–2015)

    A carver, graphic artist, and printmaker, Jutai Toonoo rejected traditional subjects and themes in favour of a range of subject matter, including contemporary Inuit life and social issues in his community. Known for incorporating spiritual themes and text into his graphic work, Jutai’s created sculptures that tended toward abstraction. The brother of artists Oviloo Tunnillie and Samonie Toonoo, Hehe was the subject of the Radio Canada International documentary The Rebel in 2010 and the brother of artists Oviloo Tunnillie and Samonie Toonoo.

  • Toonoo, Samonie (Sam) (Kinngait, 1969–2017)

    A sculptor who began carving realistic animals and traditional themes in his twenties, Samonie Toonoo went on to produce more abstract work that frequently addressed social issues. His sculptures depict Christianity, residential schools, suicide, and alcoholism and his subjects range from spirits and wildlife to pop culture and technology. Frequently his imagery incorporates haunting, even frightening skulls instead of human heads. His pieces incorporate various materials, often using white antler for faces and dark serpentinite for the bodies of his human figures. He was the brother of the artists Oviloo Tunnillie and Jutai Toonoo.

  • Toonoo, Sheojuke (Kinngait, 1928–2012)

    The daughter of artists Mary Qayuaryuk (Kudjuakjuk) and Kopapik "A" and mother of artists Oviloo Tunnillie, Jutai Toonoo, and Samonie Toonoo, Sheokjuke became a graphic artist and printmaker in the 1960s. Although her artistic career was intermittent, she consistently produced work from 2000 until the end of her life, demonstrating her versatility in the techniques of woodcut, stencil, and etching. 

  • Toulouse-Lautrec, Henri de (French, 1864–1901)

    A painter and printmaker best known for his depictions of Parisian nightlife, who created a vast body of work despite physical and psychological hardships. Toulouse-Lautrec was celebrated by both the avant-garde and the general public, and the distinctive aesthetic of his turn-of-the-century posters influenced commercial art well into the twentieth century.

  • Toupin, Fernand (Canadian, 1930–2009)

    A painter and founding member of the Plasticiens. Like the others in this group of avant-garde artists—Jauran (Rodolphe de Repentigny), Louis Belzile, and Jean-Paul Jérôme—Toupin was interested in formalist abstraction and the two-dimensionality of painting. He achieved early critical success with his “shaped,” or non-rectangular, canvases.

  • Tousignant, Claude (Canadian, b. 1932)

    A painter and sculptor whose large, flat, stark painting contributed to laying the ground rules for Plasticien painting in Montreal. During the 1960s he painted large round canvases of brightly coloured concentric circles that produce dynamic optical effects. His later work, often monochromatic, increasingly emphasizes the objectness of painting.

  • Town, Harold (Canadian, 1924–1990)

    Town was a founding member of Painters Eleven and a leader in Toronto’s art scene in the 1950s and 1960s. An internationally recognized abstract artist, he created paintings, collages, sculptures, and prints with brilliant effect and developed a unique form of monotype, “single autographic prints.” (See Harold Town: Life & Work by Gerta Moray.)

  • Trasov, Vincent (Canadian, b. 1947)

    A painter, video artist, and performance artist interested in networks of artistic exchange. Trasov’s work is often collaborative and media-based; he co-founded the Image Bank with Michael Morris in 1969 and also collaborated with several artists (including Morris) to found the Western Front Society, a Vancouver artist-run centre, in 1973. The following year he ran for mayor of Vancouver as his alter ego, Mr. Peanut.

  • Trier, Walter (Czech/British/Canadian, 1890–1951)

    A Jewish resident of Prague in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Trier relocated to Berlin, then to England in 1936, and later to Canada. He produced anti-Nazi caricatures and, as a commercial artist, he illustrated for Lilliput magazine and drew many covers for The New Yorker. He was also a book illustrator and designer.

  • Triggs, Stanley (Canadian, b. 1928)

    Curator of the Notman Photographic Archives at the McCord Museum, Montreal, from 1965 to 1993.

  • Triple K Cooperative

    The Triple K Cooperative Inc. was a Canadian Indigenous-run silkscreen company in Red Lake, Ontario, that produced quality limited editions of work by several artists within the Woodland School of art from 1973 until the early 1980s. The name Triple K relates to the surname of its three founders, brothers Joshim Kakegamic, Henry Kakegamic, and Goyce Kakegamic. They made editions for their brother-in-law Norval Morrisseau.

  • trompe l’oeil

    French for “deceives the eye,” trompe l’oeil refers to visual illusion in art, especially images and painted objects that appear to exist in three dimensions and even aim to trick the viewer into thinking that they are real. Common examples are the painted insects that appear to sit on the surface of Renaissance paintings, and murals that make flat walls appear to open into spaces beyond.

  • Troyon, Constant (French, 1810–1865)

    A landscape painter of the Barbizon school who gained more recognition for his turn toward animal painting after 1846, especially his scenes of cattle in rural and forest settings. Troyon won first-class medals at the Paris Salon in 1846 and 1848, and was elected to the Legion of Honour in 1849.

  • Tully, Sydney Strickland (Canadian, 1860–1911)

    Oil painter known for her portraits, landscapes, and genre scenes. Tully studied extensively with numerous leading painters at the Central Ontario School of Art (now OCAD University), Slade School of Fine Art, Académie Julian, Académie Colarossi, and the Long Island School of Art. Tully’s The Twilight of Life, 1894, became the first painting by a Canadian artist acquired by the Art Gallery of Toronto (now the Art Gallery of Ontario) in 1911.

  • Tunnillie, Ikayukta (Kinngait, 1911–1980)

    A printmaker and graphic artist who sold work through the West Baffin Eskimo Co-operative (now Kinngait Studios), Ikayukta Tunnillie lived on the land before settling in Cape Dorset (Kinngait) in 1970. Her children include the artists Qabaroak (Kabubuwa) Tunnillie and Kakulu Sagiatuk.

  • Tunnillie, Qabaroak (Kabubuwa) (Kinngait, 1928–1993)

    A carver noted for his focus on questions of form and composition, Qabaroak (Kabubuwa) Tunnillie created work depicting human and animal subjects that often showed two or more figures entwined. He was the son of the artist Ikayukta Tunnillie and the husband of the artist Tayaraq Tunnillie.

  • Tunnillie, Tayaraq (Kinngait, 1934–2015)

    A carver and graphic artist, Tayaraq Tunnillie participated in some of the earliest experiments in drawing at the West Baffin Eskimo Co-operative (now Kinngait Studios) in the 1950s. Her husband was the artist Qabaroak (Kabubuwa) Tunnillie.

  • Tupy, Denis (Czech/Canadian, b. 1929)

    An accomplished maker of ceramic moulds, Tupy was cofounder of Blue Mountain Pottery, a Canadian pottery brand collected internationally and renowned for its unique glazing process. In 1960 Tupy formed Canadian Ceramic Craft, which created moulds similar to those used in Blue Mountain Pottery.

  • Turner, J.M.W. (British, 1775–1851)

    Widely considered the foremost British landscape painter of the nineteenth century, Turner imbued his paintings with an expressive romanticism. His subject matter ranged from local landscapes to otherworldly natural events. He has been heralded as a precursor to both Impressionism and modernist abstract art.

  • Turner, Iain (Canadian, b. 1952)

    A multimedia abstract artist who uses vibrant colours and plywood in his paintings to convey a sculptural feeling. Turner studied art at Fanshawe College in London, Ontario, and worked for many years as a studio assistant for Paterson Ewen. His abstractions and sense of colour are influenced by the Automatistes.

  • Tuttle, Richard (American, b. 1941)

    A contemporary conceptual artist who has had a prolific output since the 1960s, working at the intersection of sculpture, painting, assemblage, and poetry. Tuttle’s pieces explore the volume, colour, lines, textures, and shapes of humble materials. The artist lives and works in Maine, New Mexico, and New York City.

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