• tableau

    French for “picture,” the term tableau refers to a formal grouping of people or objects, a striking scene.

  • Tachism

    Along with Lyrical Abstraction and Art Informel, Tachism refers to an art movement of the 1950s considered the European counterpart of Abstract Expressionism. Strongest in France, it is also associated with Automatism (as practised by the Surrealists), for its emphasis on unplanned mark making, allowing imaginative expression to arise freely from the unconscious mind.

  • Tack, Augustus Vincent (American, 1870–1949)

    Early American modernist painter specializing in portraits, murals, and abstract landscapes that influenced the later colour-field painters like Milton Avery and Clyfford Still. Many of his landscapes were inspired by photographs of the American West, which Tack imbued with subjectivity and spiritual themes. Tack taught at the Art Students League in New York and Yale University.

  • Taçon, Edna (Canadian, 1905–1980)

    Originally trained as a violinist, Taçon turned to abstract painting on the encouragement of her husband, the artist Percy Henry Taçon. She ultimately became a prominent figure in the non-objective art movement during the first half of the twentieth century, her fame eclipsing that of her husband.

  • Taçon, Percy (British/Canadian, 1902–1983)

    An abstract painter and teacher of art and modern languages who emigrated to Canada from London in 1907. He was a member of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts and the husband of Edna Taçon, a prominent figure in the non-objective art movement during the first half of the twentieth century.

  • Teevee, Ningiukulu (Ningeokuluk) (Kinngait, b. 1963)

    A leading graphic artist, author, and illustrator from Cape Dorset. She first contributed to the Cape Dorset Annual Print Collection in 2004, and her critical and public recognition has risen steadily since. Her stylistically varied oeuvre includes formal experiments, particularly with pattern, and reveals an interest in the relationship between representation and abstraction.

  • The Omega Workshops

    Roger Fry established this Bloomsbury-based company in 1913 and co-directed it with Vanessa Bell and Duncan Grant. The company employed fine artists, and fine art principles, in the production of furniture, textiles, ceramics, and other household objects, seeking to remove the distinction between the fine and decorative arts. The Omega Workshops closed in 1919.

  • Theatre Passe Muraille Company, Toronto

    A Toronto theatre founded in 1968 out of Rochdale College with a mandate to develop new Canadian plays. Passe Muraille remains an integral part of the city’s theatre scene, producing experimental and eclectic work by a wide range of artists from diverse communities and disciplinary backgrounds.

  • Thielcke, Henry Daniel (British, c. 1788–1874)

    A painter and engraver who spent the latter half of his life in the United States and Canada. Thielcke produced history paintings and portrait miniatures in addition to the large-scale painted portraits fashionable in early nineteenth-century England, which he helped popularize in Lower Canada.

  • Thomas, Roy (Ojibway, 1949–2004)

    Associated with the Woodland School, Thomas painted representations of the teachings he inherited from his ancestors and that he saw in visions. His work is known for its strong design and bold use of colour and lines. The Art Gallery of Ontario and the Royal Ontario Museum in Toronto, and the McMichael Canadian Art Collection in Kleinberg, Ontario, house his work.

  • Thomson, Tom (Canadian, 1877–1917)

    A seminal figure in the creation of a national school of painting, whose bold vision of Algonquin Park—aligned stylistically with Post-Impressionism and Art Nouveau—has come to symbolize both the Canadian landscape and Canadian landscape painting. Thomson and the members of what would in 1920 become the Group of Seven profoundly influenced one another’s work. (See Tom Thomson: Life & Work by David P. Silcox.) 

  • Thunderbird

    Considered one of the highest spirits (manitous) in Ojibway culture, and taken as a symbol for the culture itself, this supernatural bird is said to produce thunder and lightning and tend to the health and well-being of the Earth.

  • Tinguely, Jean (Swiss, 1925–1991)

    A sculptor of kinetic, monumental, and self-destructing works, such as Homage to New York, 1960, which ignited outside of New York’s Museum of Modern Art. Tinguely was one of the founders of Nouveau réalisme and produced many collaborative works over the course of his career.

  • Tissot, James (French, 1836–1902)

    A painter, etcher, and illustrator trained in the 1850s at the École des beaux-arts in Paris alongside James McNeill Whistler and Edgar Degas. Tissot participated in the Paris Commune and had to flee the city after its suppression in 1870, only returning thirteen years later. His best-known paintings depict scenes of contemporary Parisian life.

  • Titian (Italian, c. 1488–1576)

    Tiziano Vecellio, known as Titian in English, was one of the greatest painters of the Venetian Renaissance, whose formal innovations in brushwork and colour signalled the rise of a new aesthetic in Western art. Patronized by royalty, Titian enjoyed a formidable reputation throughout much of Europe. His work influenced later painters, including Diego Velázquez and Peter Paul Rubens.

  • Tobey, Mark (American, 1890–1976)

    An abstract painter whose work was influenced by Cubism and Chinese calligraphy and frequently evoked his Baha’i faith. Tobey’s all-over “white writing” paintings of the 1930s to the 1950s were developed independently of Abstract Expressionism. He lived in Seattle for many years and was associated with the Northwest School.

  • Tondo

    A circular painting or carving, which emerged as a distinct art form in fifteenth-century Florence. During the Renaissance, tondi were principally created to decorate domestic settings and as gifts for new mothers. The form has been regularly taken up by artists since then, from Caravaggio and Ingres to Picasso and Pollock.

  • Tooker, George (American, 1920–2011)

    A painter whose mysterious images of twentieth-century urban life brim with anxiety and foreboding. Committed to figurative art during a time when American modernism was defined by abstraction, Tooker existed at the margins of the art world for much of his career. Paul Cadmus and Jared French were important early influences on his style and artistic sensibility.

  • Toulouse-Lautrec, Henri de (French, 1864–1901)

    A painter and printmaker best known for his depictions of Parisian nightlife, who created a vast body of work despite physical and psychological hardships. Toulouse-Lautrec was celebrated by both the avant-garde and the general public, and the distinctive aesthetic of his turn-of-the-century posters influenced commercial art well into the twentieth century.

  • Toupin, Fernand (Canadian, 1930–2009)

    A painter and founding member of the Plasticiens. Like the others in this group of avant-garde artists—Jauran (Rodolphe de Repentigny), Louis Belzile, and Jean-Paul Jérôme—Toupin was interested in formalist abstraction and the two-dimensionality of painting. He achieved early critical success with his “shaped,” or non-rectangular, canvases.

  • Tousignant, Claude (Canadian, b. 1932)

    A painter and sculptor whose large, flat, stark painting contributed to laying the ground rules for Plasticien painting in Montreal. During the 1960s he painted large round canvases of brightly coloured concentric circles that produce dynamic optical effects. His later work, often monochromatic, increasingly emphasizes the objectness of painting.

  • Town, Harold (Canadian, 1924–1990)

    Town was a founding member of Painters Eleven and a leader in Toronto’s art scene in the 1950s and 1960s. An internationally recognized abstract artist, he created paintings, collages, sculptures, and prints with brilliant effect and developed a unique form of monotype, “single autographic prints.” (See Harold Town: Life & Work by Gerta Moray.)

  • Trasov, Vincent (Canadian, b. 1947)

    A painter, video artist, and performance artist interested in networks of artistic exchange. Trasov’s work is often collaborative and media-based; he co-founded the Image Bank with Michael Morris in 1969 and also collaborated with several artists (including Morris) to found the Western Front Society, a Vancouver artist-run centre, in 1973. The following year he ran for mayor of Vancouver as his alter ego, Mr. Peanut.

  • Trier, Walter (Czech/British/Canadian, 1890–1951)

    A Jewish resident of Prague in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Trier relocated to Berlin, then to England in 1936, and later to Canada. He produced anti-Nazi caricatures and, as a commercial artist, he illustrated for Lilliput magazine and drew many covers for The New Yorker. He was also a book illustrator and designer.

  • Triggs, Stanley (Canadian, b. 1928)

    Curator of the Notman Photographic Archives at the McCord Museum, Montreal, from 1965 to 1993.

  • Triple K Cooperative

    The Triple K Cooperative Inc. was a Canadian Indigenous-run silkscreen company in Red Lake, Ontario, that produced quality limited editions of work by several artists within the Woodland School of art from 1973 until the early 1980s. The name Triple K relates to the surname of its three founders, brothers Joshim Kakegamic, Henry Kakegamic, and Goyce Kakegamic. They made editions for their brother-in-law Norval Morrisseau.

  • trompe l’oeil

    French for “deceives the eye,” trompe l’oeil refers to visual illusion in art, especially images and painted objects that appear to exist in three dimensions and even aim to trick the viewer into thinking that they are real. Common examples are the painted insects that appear to sit on the surface of Renaissance paintings, and murals that make flat walls appear to open into spaces beyond.

  • Tupy, Denis (Czech/Canadian, b. 1929)

    An accomplished maker of ceramic moulds, Tupy was cofounder of Blue Mountain Pottery, a Canadian pottery brand collected internationally and renowned for its unique glazing process. In 1960 Tupy formed Canadian Ceramic Craft, which created moulds similar to those used in Blue Mountain Pottery.

  • Turner, J.M.W. (British, 1775–1851)

    Widely considered the foremost British landscape painter of the nineteenth century, Turner imbued his paintings with an expressive romanticism. His subject matter ranged from local landscapes to otherworldly natural events. He has been heralded as a precursor to both Impressionism and modernist abstract art.

  • Talmage, Algernon (British, 1871–1939)

    British Impressionist painter, etcher, and portraitist. Talmage was an official war artist for the Canadian government alongside Augustus John during the First World War. He was an early influence on Emily Carr as a teacher at the Cornish School of Landscape and Sea Painting in St. Ives, England, encouraging the development of her forest paintings.

  • Tonks, Henry (British, 1862–1937)

    Surgeon, draftsman, and influential British Impressionist painter and teacher. During the First World War, Tonks worked with various Red Cross factions and hospitals to create striking pastel and pen-and-ink portraits of injured soldiers. Tonks taught at the Slade School of Fine Art beginning in 1892, working with pupils like Augustus  John, Gwen John, Wyndham Lewis, and Dorothy Stevens.

  • Tully, Sydney Strickland (Canadian, 1860–1911)

    Oil painter known for her portraits, landscapes, and genre scenes. Tully studied extensively with numerous leading painters at the Central Ontario School of Art (now OCAD University), Slade School of Fine Art, Académie Julian, Académie Colarossi, and the Long Island School of Art. Tully’s The Twilight of Life, 1894, became the first painting by a Canadian artist acquired by the Art Gallery of Toronto (now the Art Gallery of Ontario) in 1911.

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